Bibliography

This page highlights publications used as references by the Green Science Policy Institute in our work.

For publications by Institute staff, see Our Publications

Furniture Flame Retardants, Toxicity and Health

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Abb, M., Stahl, B., & Lorenz, W. (2011). Analysis of brominated flame retardants in house dust. Chemosphere, 85(11), 1657–63. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.06.022

Adamkiewicz, G., Zota, A. R., Fabian, M. P., Chahine, T., Julien, R., Spengler, J. D., & Levy, J. I. (2011). Moving environmental justice indoors: understanding structural influences on residential exposure patterns in low-income communities. American journal of public health, 101 Suppl , S238–45. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300119

Akutsu, K., Takatori, S., Nozawa, S., Yoshiike, M., Nakazawa, H., Hayakawa, K., Makino, T., et al. (2008). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human serum and sperm quality. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 80(4), 345–50. doi:10.1007/s00128-008-9370-4

Al-Mousa, F., & Michelangeli, F. (2012). Some commonly used brominated flame retardants cause Ca2+-ATPase inhibition, beta-amyloid peptide release and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. PloS one, 7(4), e33059. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033059

Aleksa, K., Carnevale, A., Goodyer, C., & Koren, G. (2012). Detection of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pediatric hair as a tool for determining in utero exposure. Forensic science international, 218(1-3), 37–43. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.10.003

Ali, N, Van den Eede, N., Dirtu, A. C., Neels, H., & Covaci, A. (2012). Assessment of human exposure to indoor organic contaminants via dust ingestion in Pakistan. Indoor air, 22(3), 200–11. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2011.00757.x

Ali, Nadeem, Ali, L., Mehdi, T., Dirtu, A. C., Al-Shammari, F., Neels, H., & Covaci, A. (2013). Levels and profiles of organochlorines and flame retardants in car and house dust from Kuwait and pakistan: implication for human exposure via dust ingestion. Environment international, 55, 62–70. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2013.02.001

Ali, Nadeem, Dirtu, A. C., Van den Eede, N., Goosey, E., Harrad, S., Neels, H., ’t Mannetje, A., et al. (2012). Occurrence of alternative flame retardants in indoor dust from New Zealand: indoor sources and human exposure assessment. Chemosphere, 88(11), 1276–82. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.03.100

Ali, Nadeem, Harrad, S., Goosey, E., Neels, H., & Covaci, A. (2011). “Novel” brominated flame retardants in Belgian and UK indoor dust: implications for human exposure. Chemosphere, 83(10), 1360–5. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.078

Ali, Nadeem, Harrad, S., Muenhor, D., Neels, H., & Covaci, A. (2011). Analytical characteristics and determination of major novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in indoor dust. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 400(9), 3073–83. doi:10.1007/s00216-011-4966-7

Ali, Nadeem, Malik, R. N., Mehdi, T., Eqani, S. A. M. A. S., Javeed, A., Neels, H., & Covaci, A. (2013). Organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) in the serum and hair of pet cats and dogs: biosentinels of indoor pollution. The Science of the total environment, 449, 29–36. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.037

Allen, J. G., McClean, M. D., Stapleton, H. M., & Webster, T. F. (2008). Linking PBDEs in house dust to consumer products using X-ray fluorescence. Environmental science & technology, 42(11), 4222–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589991

Alm, H., Scholz, B., Kultima, K., Nilsson, A., Andrén, P. E., Savitski, M. M., Bergman, A., et al. (2010). In vitro neurotoxicity of PBDE-99: immediate and concentration-dependent effects on protein expression in cerebral cortex cells. Journal of proteome research, 9(3), 1226–35. doi:10.1021/pr900723c

An, J., Li, S., Zhong, Y., Wang, Y., Zhen, K., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., et al. (2011). The cytotoxic effects of synthetic 6-hydroxylated and 6-methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE47). Environmental toxicology, 26(6), 591–9. doi:10.1002/tox.20582

Antignac, J.-P., Cariou, R., Maume, D., Marchand, P., Monteau, F., Zalko, D., Berrebi, A., et al. (2008). Exposure assessment of fetus and newborn to brominated flame retardants in France: preliminary data. Molecular nutrition & food research, 52(2), 258–65. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700077

Araki, A., Saito, I., Kanazawa, A., Morimoto, K., Nakayama, K., Shibata, E., Tanaka, M., et al. (2013). Phosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust and their relation to asthma and allergies of inhabitants. Indoor air. doi:10.1111/ina.12054

Arbuckle, T. E., Kubwabo, C., Walker, M., Davis, K., Lalonde, K., Kosarac, I., Wen, S. W., et al. (2013). Umbilical cord blood levels of perfluoroalkyl acids and polybrominated flame retardants. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 216(2), 184–94. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.03.004

Asante, K. A., Adu-Kumi, S., Nakahiro, K., Takahashi, S., Isobe, T., Sudaryanto, A., Devanathan, G., et al. (2011). Human exposure to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in Ghana: Temporal variation, sources of exposure and estimation of daily intakes by infants. Environment international, 37(5), 921–8. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.03.011

Babrauskas, V., Blum, A., R., D., & L., B. (2011). Flame Retardants in Furniture Foam: Benefits and Risks. Fire Safety Science, 10, 265–278. Retrieved from http://www.iafss.org/publications/fss/10/265/

Banasik, M., & Suchecka, D. (2011). Neurotoxicity of PBDEs on the developing nervous system. Environmental health perspectives, 119(8), A331; author reply A331–2. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103907

Batterman, S., Godwin, C., Chernyak, S., Jia, C., & Charles, S. (2010). Brominated flame retardants in offices in Michigan, USA. Environment international, 36(6), 548–56. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.008

Bearr, J. S., Stapleton, H. M., & Mitchelmore, C. L. (2010). Accumulation and DNA damage in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 2 brominated flame-retardant mixtures, Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, 29(3), 722–9. doi:10.1002/etc.94

Behnisch, P. (2003). Brominated dioxin-like compounds: in vitro assessment in comparison to classical dioxin-like compounds and other polyaromatic compounds. Environment International, 29(6), 861–877. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00105-3

Bellés, M., Alonso, V., Linares, V., Albina, M. L., Sirvent, J. J., Domingo, J. L., & Sánchez, D. J. (2010). Behavioral effects and oxidative status in brain regions of adult rats exposed to BDE-99. Toxicology letters, 194(1-2), 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.01.010

Bergh, C., Magnus Åberg, K., Svartengren, M., Emenius, G., & Östman, C. (2011). Organophosphate and phthalate esters in indoor air: a comparison between multi-storey buildings with high and low prevalence of sick building symptoms. Journal of environmental monitoring: JEM, 13(7), 2001–9. doi:10.1039/c1em10152h

Besis, A., & Samara, C. (2012). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor and outdoor environments–a review on occurrence and human exposure. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987), 169, 217–29. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2012.04.009

Beth-Hubner, M. (1999). Toxicological evaluation and classification of the genotoxic, carcinogenic, reprotoxic and sensitising potential of tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 72(0), M017–M023–M023. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/u3rvnmjcc02hlv12/

Betts, K. S. (2010). Endocrine damper? Flame retardants linked to male hormone, sperm count changes. Environmental health perspectives, 118(3), A 130. doi:10.1289/ehp.118-a130b

Blake, C. A., McCoy, G. L., Hui, Y. Y., & LaVoie, H. A. (2011). Perinatal exposure to low-dose DE-71 increases serum thyroid hormones and gonadal osteopontin gene expression. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 236(4), 445–55. doi:10.1258/ebm.2010.010334

Boas, M., Feldt-Rasmussen, U., & Main, K. M. (2012). Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 355(2), 240–8. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.09.005

Bondy, G. S., Gaertner, D., Cherry, W., MacLellan, E., Coady, L., Arnold, D. L., Doucet, J., et al. (2011). Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) levels in liver, adipose, and milk from adult and juvenile rats exposed by gavage to the DE-71 technical mixture. Environmental toxicology, 26(6), 677–90. doi:10.1002/tox.20603

Bradman, A., Castorina, R., Sjödin, A., Fenster, L., Jones, R. S., Harley, K. G., Chevrier, J., et al. (2012). Factors associated with serum polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels among school-age children in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental science & technology, 46(13), 7373–81. doi:10.1021/es3003487

Brommer, S., Harrad, S., Van den Eede, N., & Covaci, A. (2012). Concentrations of organophosphate esters and brominated flame retardants in German indoor dust samples. Journal of environmental monitoring: JEM, 14(9), 2482–7. doi:10.1039/c2em30303e

Bruchajzer, Elżbieta. (2011). Porphyrogenic effect of pentabromodiphenyl ether after repeated administration to rats. Archives of toxicology, 85(8), 965–74. doi:10.1007/s00204-010-0621-x

Bruchajzer, Elzbieta, Frydrych, B., Sporny, S., & Szymańska, J. A. (2010). Toxicity of penta- and decabromodiphenyl ethers after repeated administration to rats: a comparative study. Archives of toxicology, 84(4), 287–99. doi:10.1007/s00204-009-0495-y

Bruchajzer, Elzbieta, Frydrych, B., Sporny, S., & Szymańska, J. A. (2011). The effect of short-term intoxication of rats with pentabromodiphenyl ether (in mixture mimic commercial products). Human & experimental toxicology, 30(5), 363–78. doi:10.1177/0960327110371261

Butt, C. M., Wang, D., & Stapleton, H. M. (2011). Halogenated phenolic contaminants inhibit the in vitro activity of the thyroid-regulating deiodinases in human liver. Toxicological sciences: an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 124(2), 339–47. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfr117

Buttke, D. E., Wolkin, A., Stapleton, H. M., & Miranda, M. L. (2013). Associations between serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and environmental and behavioral factors in pregnant women. Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology, 23(2), 176–82. doi:10.1038/jes.2012.67

Cai, Y., Zhang, W., Hu, J., Sheng, G., Chen, D., & Fu, J. (2011). Characterization of maternal transfer of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), 31(1), 106–10. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.08.005

Carmichael, S. L., Herring, A. H., Sjödin, A., Jones, R., Needham, L., Ma, C., Ding, K., et al. (2010). Hypospadias and halogenated organic pollutant levels in maternal mid-pregnancy serum samples. Chemosphere, 80(6), 641–6. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.04.055

Carpenter, D. O. (2011). Health effects of persistent organic pollutants: the challenge for the Pacific Basin and for the world. Reviews on environmental health, 26(1), 61–9. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714383

Casals-Casas, C., & Desvergne, B. (2011). Endocrine disruptors: from endocrine to metabolic disruption. Annual review of physiology, 73, 135–62. doi:10.1146/annurev-physiol-012110-142200

Casas, M., Chevrier, C., Hond, E. Den, Fernandez, M. F., Pierik, F., Philippat, C., Slama, R., et al. (2013). Exposure to brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and phenols in European birth cohorts: ENRIECO evaluation, first human biomonitoring results, and recommendations. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 216(3), 230–42. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.05.009

Caserta, D., Mantovani, A., Marci, R., Fazi, A., Ciardo, F., La Rocca, C., Maranghi, F., et al. (2011). Environment and women’s reproductive health. Human reproduction update, 17(3), 418–33. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmq061

Chao, H.-R., Wang, S.-L., Lee, W.-J., Wang, Y.-F., & Päpke, O. (2007). Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from central Taiwan and their relation to infant birth outcome and maternal menstruation effects. Environment international, 33(2), 239–45. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2006.09.013

Chen, A., Chung, E., DeFranco, E. A., Pinney, S. M., & Dietrich, K. N. (2011). Serum PBDEs and age at menarche in adolescent girls: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Environmental research, 111(6), 831–7. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2011.05.016

Chen, A., Park, J.-S., Linderholm, L., Rhee, A., Petreas, M., DeFranco, E. A., Dietrich, K. N., et al. (2013). Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in paired maternal and cord sera. Environmental science & technology, 47(8), 3902–8. doi:10.1021/es3046839

Chen, L., Yu, K., Huang, C., Yu, L., Zhu, B., Lam, P. K. S., Lam, J. C. W., et al. (2012). Prenatal transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) results in developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish larvae. Environmental science & technology, 46(17), 9727–34. doi:10.1021/es302119g

Chen, S.-J., Ma, Y.-J., Wang, J., Chen, D., Luo, X.-J., & Mai, B.-X. (2009). Brominated flame retardants in children’s toys: concentration, composition, and children’s exposure and risk assessment. Environmental science & technology, 43(11), 4200–6. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19569352

Chen, S.-J., Ma, Y.-J., Wang, J., Tian, M., Luo, X.-J., Chen, D., & Mai, B.-X. (2010). Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China. Journal of hazardous materials, 176(1-3), 979–84. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.138

Chevrier, J., Harley, K. G., Bradman, A., Gharbi, M., Sjödin, A., & Eskenazi, B. (2010). Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Environmental health perspectives, 118(10), 1444–9. doi:10.1289/ehp.1001905

Chevrier, J., Harley, K. G., Bradman, A., Sjödin, A., & Eskenazi, B. (2011). Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in the CHAMACOS study. American journal of epidemiology, 174(10), 1166–74. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr223

Choi, J.-W., Fujimaki, T. S., Kitamura, K., Hashimoto, S., Ito, H., Suzuki, N., Sakai, S., et al. (2003). Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and diphenyl ethers in Japanese human adipose tissue. Environmental science & technology, 37(5), 817–21. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12666907

Christen, V., Crettaz, P., Oberli-Schrämmli, A., & Fent, K. (2010). Some flame retardants and the antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban enhance the androgenic activity in vitro. Chemosphere, 81(10), 1245–52. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.09.031

Costa, L. G., & Giordano, G. (2007). Developmental neurotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Neurotoxicology, 28(6), 1047–67. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.08.007

Costa, L. G., & Giordano, G. (2011). Is decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) a developmental neurotoxicant? Neurotoxicology, 32(1), 9–24. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2010.12.010

Croes, K., Colles, A., Koppen, G., Govarts, E., Bruckers, L., Van de Mieroop, E., Nelen, V., et al. (2012). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium). Chemosphere, 89(8), 988–94. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.058

Cunha, S. C., Kalachova, K., Pulkrabova, J., Fernandes, J. O., Oliveira, M. B. P. P., Alves, A., & Hajslova, J. (2010). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contents in house and car dust of Portugal by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemosphere, 78(10), 1263–71. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.12.037

D’Hollander, W., Roosens, L., Covaci, A., Cornelis, C., Reynders, H., Campenhout, K. Van, Voogt, P. de, et al. (2010). Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds in indoor dust from homes and offices in Flanders, Belgium. Chemosphere, 81(4), 478–87. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.07.043

Daniels, J. L., Pan, I.-J., Jones, R., Anderson, S., Patterson, D. G., Needham, L. L., & Sjödin, A. (2010). Individual characteristics associated with PBDE levels in U.S. human milk samples. Environmental health perspectives, 118(1), 155–60. doi:10.1289/ehp.0900759

Darnerud, P. (2003). Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife. Environment International, 29(6), 841–853. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00107-7

Darnerud, P. O., Aune, M., Larsson, L., Lignell, S., Mutshatshi, T., Okonkwo, J., Botha, B., et al. (2011). Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo Province, South Africa. The Science of the total environment, 409(19), 4048–53. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.054

Daubié, S., Bisson, J.-F., Lalonde, R., Schroeder, H., & Rychen, G. (2011). Neurobehavioral and physiological effects of low doses of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-99 in male adult rats. Toxicology letters, 204(1), 57–63. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.04.009

De Coster, S., & Van Larebeke, N. (2012). Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: associated disorders and mechanisms of action. Journal of environmental and public health, 2012, 713696. doi:10.1155/2012/713696

De Wit, C. A., Björklund, J. A., & Thuresson, K. (2012). Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: indoor sources and human exposure. Environment international, 39(1), 141–7. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.11.001

Devanathan, G., Subramanian, A., Sudaryanto, A., Takahashi, S., Isobe, T., & Tanabe, S. (2012). Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk from several locations in India: potential contaminant sources in a municipal dumping site. Environment international, 39(1), 87–95. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.10.005

DiGangi, J., Blum, A., Bergman, A., De Wit, C. A., Lucas, D., Mortimer, D., Schecter, A., et al. (2010). San Antonio Statement on brominated and chlorinated flame retardants. Environmental health perspectives, 118(12), A516–8. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003089

Dingemans, M. M. L., Van den Berg, M., Bergman, A., & Westerink, R. H. S. (2010). Calcium-related processes involved in the inhibition of depolarization-evoked calcium increase by hydroxylated PBDEs in PC12 cells. Toxicological sciences: an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 114(2), 302–9. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfp310

Dingemans, M. M. L., Van den Berg, M., & Westerink, R. H. S. (2011). Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants: (in)direct effects of parent and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers on the (developing) nervous system. Environmental health perspectives, 119(7), 900–7. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003035

Dirtu, A. C., Ali, N., Van den Eede, N., Neels, H., & Covaci, A. (2012). Country specific comparison for profile of chlorinated, brominated and phosphate organic contaminants in indoor dust. Case study for Eastern Romania, 2010. Environment international, 49, 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2012.08.002

Dishaw, L. V., Powers, C. M., Ryde, I. T., Roberts, S. C., Seidler, F. J., Slotkin, T. A., & Stapleton, H. M. (2011). Is the PentaBDE Replacement, Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP), a Developmental Neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 Cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2011.01.005

Dodson, R. E., Perovich, L. J., Covaci, A., Van den Eede, N., Ionas, A. C., Dirtu, A. C., Brody, J. G., et al. (2012). After the PBDE phase-out: a broad suite of flame retardants in repeat house dust samples from California. Environmental science & technology, 46(24), 13056–66. doi:10.1021/es303879n

Domingo, J. L. (2012). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in food and human dietary exposure: a review of the recent scientific literature. Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 50(2), 238–49. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.004

Dreiem, A., Okoniewski, R. J., Brosch, K. O., Miller, V. M., & Seegal, R. F. (2010). Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers alter striatal dopamine neurochemistry in synaptosomes from developing rats in an additive manner. Toxicological sciences: an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 118(1), 150–9. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfq229

Driscoll, L. L., Kaplan, J., Bucuvalas, E., Allen, H., Kraut, J., & Fitzpatrick, J. (n.d.). Acute postnatal exposure to the pentaBDE commercial mixture DE-71 at 5 or 15 mg/kg/day does not produce learning or attention deficits in rats. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 34(1), 20–6. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2011.10.002

Dye, J. A., Venier, M., Zhu, L., Ward, C. R., Hites, R. A., & Birnbaum, L. S. (2007). Elevated PBDE Levels in Pet Cats:  Sentinels for Humans? Environmental Science & Technology, 41(18), 6350–6356. doi:10.1021/es0708159

Eggesbø, M., Thomsen, C., Jørgensen, J. V, Becher, G., Odland, J. Ø., & Longnecker, M. P. (2011). Associations between brominated flame retardants in human milk and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in neonates. Environmental research, 111(6), 737–43. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2011.05.004

Eriksson, P, Jakobsson, E., & Fredriksson, A. (2001). Brominated flame retardants: a novel class of developmental neurotoxicants in our environment? Environmental health perspectives, 109(9), 903–8. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1240439&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

Eriksson, P, Viberg, H., Jakobsson, E., Orn, U., & Fredriksson, A. (2002). A brominated flame retardant, 2,2’,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether: uptake, retention, and induction of neurobehavioral alterations in mice during a critical phase of neonatal brain development. Toxicological sciences, 67(1), 98–103. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11961221

Eriksson, Per, Fischer, C., & Fredriksson, A. (2006). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, a group of brominated flame retardants, can interact with polychlorinated biphenyls in enhancing developmental neurobehavioral defects. Toxicological sciences, 94(2), 302–9. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfl109

Ernest, S. R., Wade, M. G., Lalancette, C., Ma, Y.-Q., Berger, R. G., Robaire, B., & Hales, B. F. (2012). Effects of chronic exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of brominated flame retardants on the reproductive and thyroid system in adult male rats. Toxicological sciences: an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 127(2), 496–507. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfs098

Erratico, C. A., Moffatt, S. C., & Bandiera, S. M. (2011). Comparative oxidative metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 by rat hepatic microsomes. Toxicological sciences: an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 123(1), 37–47. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfr155

Erratico, C. A., Szeitz, A., & Bandiera, S. M. (2013). Biotransformation of 2,2’,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-47) by Human Liver Microsomes: Identification of Cytochrome P450 2B6 as the Major Enzyme Involved. Chemical research in toxicology, 26(5), 721–31. doi:10.1021/tx300522u

Eskenazi, B., Chevrier, J., Rauch, S. A., Kogut, K., Harley, K. G., Johnson, C., Trujillo, C., et al. (2013). In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures and neurodevelopment in the CHAMACOS study. Environmental health perspectives, 121(2), 257–62. doi:10.1289/ehp.1205597

Eskenazi, B., Fenster, L., Castorina, R., Marks, A. R., Sjödin, A., Rosas, L. G., Holland, N., et al. (2011). A comparison of PBDE serum concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American children living in California. Environmental health perspectives, 119(10), 1442–8. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002874

Fair, P. A., Stavros, H.-C., Mollenhauer, M. A. M., DeWitt, J. C., Henry, N., Kannan, K., Yun, S. H., et al. (2012). Immune function in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice is modulated by DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture. Journal of immunotoxicology, 9(1), 96–107. doi:10.3109/1547691X.2011.643418

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Vorkamp, K., Thomsen, M., Frederiksen, M., Pedersen, M., & Knudsen, L. E. (2011). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor environment and associations with prenatal exposure. Environment international, 37(1), 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.06.001

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Zhang, J. G., Sun, X. W., & Ai, H. (2012). Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in primipara breast milk from Shenzhen and exposure risk for breast-fed infants. Journal of environmental monitoring: JEM, 14(3), 893–900. doi:10.1039/c2em10739b

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Zota, A. R., Adamkiewicz, G., & Morello-Frosch, R. A. (2010). Are PBDEs an environmental equity concern? Exposure disparities by socioeconomic status. Environmental science & technology, 44(15), 5691–2. doi:10.1021/es101723d

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Furniture Flame Retardants and the Environment

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Chen, D., Letcher, R. J., & Chu, S. (2012). Determination of non-halogenated, chlorinated and brominated organophosphate flame retardants in herring gull eggs based on liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. Journal of chromatography. A, 1220, 169–74. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.11.046

Chen, D., Letcher, R. J., & Martin, P. (2012). Flame retardants in eggs of American kestrels and European starlings from southern Lake Ontario region (North America). Journal of environmental monitoring: JEM, 14(11), 2870–6. doi:10.1039/c2em30472d

Chen, S.-J., Feng, A.-H., He, M.-J., Chen, M.-Y., Luo, X.-J., & Mai, B.-X. (2013). Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: comparison with historical data. The Science of the total environment, 444, 205–11. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.104

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Verreault, J., Gebbink, W. A., Gauthier, L. T., Gabrielsen, G. W., & Letcher, R. J. (2007). Brominated flame retardants in glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: more than just an issue of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environmental science & technology, 41(14), 4925–31. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17711204

Viganò, L., Roscioli, C., & Guzzella, L. (2011). Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) enters the food web of the River Po and is metabolically debrominated in resident cyprinid fishes. The Science of the total environment, 409(23), 4966–72. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.062

Villanger, G. D., Lydersen, C., Kovacs, K. M., Lie, E., Skaare, J. U., & Jenssen, B. M. (2011). Disruptive effects of persistent organohalogen contaminants on thyroid function in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard. The Science of the total environment, 409(13), 2511–24. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.03.014

Vrkoslavová, J., Demnerová, K., Macková, M., Zemanová, T., Macek, T., Hajslová, J., Pulkrabová, J., et al. (2010). Absorption and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by plants from contaminated sewage sludge. Chemosphere, 81(3), 381–6. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.07.010

Waaijers, S. L., Kong, D., Hendriks, H. S., De Wit, C. A., Cousins, I. T., Westerink, R. H. S., Leonards, P. E. G., et al. (2013). Persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, 222, 1–71. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4717-7_1

Wang, C., Li, W., Chen, J., Wang, H., Li, T., Shen, G., Shen, H., et al. (2012). Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987), 171, 234–40. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2012.07.041

Wang, D.-G., Alaee, M., Sverko, E., Li, Y.-F., Reiner, E. J., & Shen, L. (2011). Analysis and occurrence of emerging chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in surficial sediment of the Dalian coastal area in China. Journal of environmental monitoring: JEM, 13(11), 3104–10. doi:10.1039/c1em10241a

Wang, J., Kliks, M. M., Jun, S., & Li, Q. X. (2010). Residues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in honeys from different geographic regions. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58(6), 3495–501. doi:10.1021/jf904490g

Wang, L.-C., Hsi, H.-C., Wang, Y.-F., Lin, S.-L., & Chang-Chien, G.-P. (2010). Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators. Environmental pollution, 158(5), 1595–602. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2009.12.016

Wang, S., Zhang, S., Huang, H., & Christie, P. (2011). Behavior of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in soil: effects of rhizosphere and mycorrhizal colonization of ryegrass roots. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987), 159(3), 749–53. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.11.035

Weijs, L., Das, K., Neels, H., Blust, R., & Covaci, A. (2010). Occurrence of anthropogenic and naturally-produced organohalogenated compounds in tissues of Black Sea harbour porpoises. Marine pollution bulletin, 60(5), 725–31. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.11.022

Wiseman, S. B., Wan, Y., Chang, H., Zhang, X., Hecker, M., Jones, P. D., & Giesy, J. P. (2011). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated/methoxylated analogs: environmental sources, metabolic relationships, and relative toxicities. Marine pollution bulletin, 63(5-12), 179–88. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.02.008

Wong, F., Kurt-Karakus, P., & Bidleman, T. F. (2012). Fate of brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pesticides in urban soil: volatility and degradation. Environmental science & technology, 46(5), 2668–74. doi:10.1021/es203287x

Wu, J., Zhang, Y., Luo, X., She, Y., Yu, L., Chen, S., & Mai, B. (2012). A review of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative brominated flame retardants in wildlife from China: levels, trends, and bioaccumulation characteristics. Journal of environmental sciences (China), 24(2), 183–94. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22655375

Xiao, H., Shen, L., Su, Y., Barresi, E., Dejong, M., Hung, H., Lei, Y.-D., et al. (2012). Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants at two remote locations: the Canadian High Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987), 161, 154–61. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.09.041

Xie, Z., Möller, A., Ahrens, L., Sturm, R., & Ebinghaus, R. (2011). Brominated flame retardants in seawater and atmosphere of the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Environmental science & technology, 45(5), 1820–6. doi:10.1021/es103803t

Xu, Y., Zhang, G., Li, J., Liu, X., & Li, X. (2011). Atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Pb isotopes at a remote site in Southwestern China: implications for monsoon-associated transport. The Science of the total environment, 409(21), 4564–71. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.035

Yogui, G. T., Santos, M. C. O., Bertozzi, C. P., Sericano, J. L., & Montone, R. C. (2011). PBDEs in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal areas of São Paulo, Brazil, southwestern Atlantic. Marine pollution bulletin, 62(12), 2666–70. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.09.024

Yu, L., Deng, J., Shi, X., Liu, C., Yu, K., & Zhou, B. (2010). Exposure to DE-71 alters thyroid hormone levels and gene transcription in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of zebrafish larvae. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 97(3), 226–33. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.10.022

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Yu, L.-H., Luo, X.-J., Wu, J.-P., Liu, L.-Y., Song, J., Sun, Q.-H., Zhang, X.-L., et al. (2011). Biomagnification of higher brominated PBDE congeners in an urban terrestrial food web in north China based on field observation of prey deliveries. Environmental science & technology, 45(12), 5125–31. doi:10.1021/es200030z

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Electronics and Flame Retardants

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Alaee, M 2003, “An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release.” Environment International, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 683-689.

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Fischer, D, Hooper, K, Athanasiadou, M, Athanassiadis, I & Bergman, Ake 2006, “Children show highest levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a California family of four: a case study.” Environmental health perspectives, vol. 114, no. 10, pp. 1581-4.

Fisher, MM, Mark, FE, Kingsbury, T, Vehlow, J & Yamawaki, T 2005, “Energy recovery in the sustainable recycling of plastics from end-of-life electrical and electronic products.” , pp. 83-92.

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Gao, F, Luo, X-J, Yang, Z-F, Wang, X-M & Mai, B-X 2009, “Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in bird eggs from the Yellow River Delta, North China.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 43, no. 18, pp. 6956-62.

Gauthier, LT, Potter, D, Hebert, CE & Letcher, RJ 2009, “Temporal trends and spatial distribution of non-polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the eggs of colonial populations of Great Lakes herring gulls.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 312-7.

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Hale, RC, La Guardia, MJ, Harvey, E, Gaylor, MO & Mainor, TM 2006, “Brominated flame retardant concentrations and trends in abiotic media.” Chemosphere, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 181-6.

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Harrad, S, Abdallah, MA-E, Rose, NL, Turner, SD & Davidson, TA 2009, “Current-use brominated flame retardants in water, sediment, and fish from English lakes.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 43, no. 24, pp. 9077-83.

He, M-J, Luo, X-J, Yu, L-H, Liu, Juan, et al. 2010, “Tetrabromobisphenol-A and hexabromocyclododecane in birds from an e-waste region in South China: influence of diet on diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific distribution and trophodynamics.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 5748-54.

Helleday, T, Tuominen, KL, Bergman, A & Jenssen, D 1999, “Brominated flame retardants induce intragenic recombination in mammalian cells.” Mutation research, vol. 439, no. 2, pp. 137-47.

Hirai, Y & Sakai, S-I 2007, “Brominated flame retardants in recycled plastic products.,” in 4th International Symposium on Brominated Flame Retardants, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Hitachi 2004, Application Note AN-007 LCD backlighting technologies and configuration., Hitachi, Ltd.

Hu, G-C, Luo, X-J, Dai, J-Y, Zhang, X-L, et al. 2008, “Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in captive giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) from China.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 4704-9.

Jakobsson, K, Thuresson, K, Rylander, L, Sjödin, A, et al. 2002, “Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A among computer technicians.” Chemosphere, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 709-16.

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Johansson, A-K, Sellström, U, Lindberg, P, Bignert, A & De Witt, CA 2009, “Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns, hexabromocyclododecane, and brominated biphenyl 153 in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.” Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 9-17.

Johansson, N, Viberg, H, Fredriksson, A & Eriksson, P 2008, “Neonatal exposure to deca-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209) causes dose-response changes in spontaneous behaviour and cholinergic susceptibility in adult mice.” Neurotoxicology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 911-9.

Johnson-Restrepo, B, Adams, DH & Kannan, K 2008, “Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in tissues of humans, dolphins, and sharks from the United States.” Chemosphere, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 1935-44.

Johnson-Restrepo, B, Kannan, K, Addink, R & Adams, DH 2005, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a marine foodweb of coastal Florida.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 39, no. 21, pp. 8243-50.

Kajiwara, N, Noma, Y & Takigami, Hidetaka 2008, “Photolysis studies of technical decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) and ethane (DeBDethane) in plastics under natural sunlight.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 4404-9.

Karlsson, M, Ericson, I, Bavel, B van, Jensen, J-K & Dam, M 2006, “Levels of brominated flame retardants in Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) eggs from the Faroe Islands.” The Science of the total environment, vol. 367, no. 2-3, pp. 840-6.

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Kitamura, Shigeyuki, Kato, T, Iida, M, Jinno, N, et al. 2005, “Anti-thyroid hormonal activity of tetrabromobisphenol A, a flame retardant, and related compounds: Affinity to the mammalian thyroid hormone receptor, and effect on tadpole metamorphosis.” Life sciences, vol. 76, no. 14, pp. 1589-601.

Kitamura, Shigeyuki, Suzuki, T, Sanoh, S, Kohta, R, et al. 2005, “Comparative study of the endocrine-disrupting activity of bisphenol A and 19 related compounds.” Toxicological sciences, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 249-59.

Kuester, RK, Sólyom, AM, Rodriguez, VP & Sipes, IG 2007, “The effects of dose, route, and repeated dosing on the disposition and kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A in male F-344 rats.” Toxicological sciences, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 237-45.

Kuiper, RV, Den Brandhof, EJ van, Leonards, P E G, Der Ven, L T M van, et al. 2007, “Toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a partial life-cycle test.” Archives of toxicology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 1-9.

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Ronisz, D, Finne, EF, Karlsson, H & Förlin, L 2004, “Effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), on hepatic enzymes and other biomarkers in juvenile rainbow trout and feral eelpout.” Aquatic toxicology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 229-45.

Ross, PS, Couillard, CM, Ikonomou, MG, Johannessen, SC, et al. 2009, “Large and growing environmental reservoirs of Deca-BDE present an emerging health risk for fish and marine mammals.” Marine pollution bulletin, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 7-10.

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Shaw, SD, Berger, ML, Brenner, D, Kannan, K, et al. 2009, “Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in the northwest Atlantic marine food web.” The Science of the total environment, vol. 407, no. 10, pp. 3323-9.

Shi, T, Chen, S-J, Luo, X-J, Zhang, X-L, et al. 2009, “Occurrence of brominated flame retardants other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental and biota samples from southern China.” Chemosphere, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 910-6.

Simonson, M, Andersson, P & Den Berg, M van 2006, Cost benefit analysis model for fire safety: Methodology and TV (DecaBDE) case study., SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute.

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Stapleton, HM, Alaee, Mehran, Letcher, RJ & Baker, JE 2004, “Debromination of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ether by juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) following dietary exposure.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 112-9.

Stapleton, HM, Allen, JG, Kelly, SM, Konstantinov, A, et al. 2008, “Alternate and new brominated flame retardants detected in U.S. house dust.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 42, no. 18, pp. 6910-6.

Stapleton, HM & Dodder, NG 2008, “Photodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether in house dust by natural sunlight.” Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 306-12.

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Suzuki, G, Nose, K, Takigami, H, Takahashi, S & Sakai, Si 2006, “PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in house and office dust from Japan.” Organohalogen Compounds, vol. 68, pp. 1843-1846.

Söderström, G & Marklund, S 2002, “PBCDD and PBCDF from incineration of waste-containing brominated flame retardants.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1959-64.

Takigami, Hidetaka, Suzuki, Go, Hirai, Yasuhiro & Sakai, S-ichi 2008, “Transfer of brominated flame retardants from components into dust inside television cabinets.” Chemosphere, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 161-9.

Talsness, CE, Andrade, AJM, Kuriyama, SN, Taylor, JA & Saal, FS vom 2009, “Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health.” Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, vol. 364, no. 1526, pp. 2079-96.

Tanabe, S, Ramu, K, Isobe, T & Takahashi, Shin 2008, “Brominated flame retardants in the environment of Asia-Pacific: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.” Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 188-97.

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Verreault, J, Gebbink, WA, Gauthier, LT, Gabrielsen, GW & Letcher, RJ 2007, “Brominated flame retardants in glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: more than just an issue of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 41, no. 14, pp. 4925-31.

Viberg, Henrik, Fredriksson, Anders & Eriksson, Per 2007, “Changes in spontaneous behaviour and altered response to nicotine in the adult rat, after neonatal exposure to the brominated flame retardant, decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209).” Neurotoxicology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 136-42.

Viberg, Henrik, Fredriksson, Anders, Jakobsson, Eva, Orn, U & Eriksson, Per 2003, “Neurobehavioral derangements in adult mice receiving decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209) during a defined period of neonatal brain development.” Toxicological sciences, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 112-20.

Viberg, Henrik, Johansson, Niclas, Fredriksson, Anders, Eriksson, J, et al. 2006, “Neonatal exposure to higher brominated diphenyl ethers, hepta-, octa-, or nonabromodiphenyl ether, impairs spontaneous behavior and learning and memory functions of adult mice.” Toxicological sciences, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 211-8.

Wang, L-C, Hsi, H-C, Wang, Y-F, Lin, S-L & Chang-Chien, G-P 2010, “Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators.” Environmental pollution, vol. 158, no. 5, pp. 1595-602.

Watanabe, W, Shimizu, T, Sawamura, R, Hino, A, et al. 2010, “Functional disorder of primary immunity responding to respiratory syncytial virus infection in offspring mice exposed to a flame retardant, decabrominated diphenyl ether, perinatally.” Journal of medical virology, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1075-82.

Weber, R 2003, “Relevance of BFRs and thermal conditions on the formation pathways of brominated and brominated–chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.” Environment International, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 699-710.

Wichmann, H, Dettmer, FT & Bahadir, M 2002, “Thermal formation of PBDD/F from tetrabromobisphenol A–a comparison of polymer linked TBBP A with its additive incorporation in thermoplastics.” Chemosphere, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 349-55.

Windham, GC, Pinney, SM, Sjodin, A, Lum, R, et al. 2010, “Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls.” Environmental research, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 251-7.

Wit, CA de 2002, “An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment.” Chemosphere, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 583-624.

Wit, CA de, Herzke, Dorte & Vorkamp, K 2009, “Brominated flame retardants in the Arctic environment – trends and new candidates.” The Science of the total environment, vol. 408, no. 15, pp. 2885-918.

Wong, M H, Wu, SC, Deng, WJ, Yu, XZ, et al. 2007, “Export of toxic chemicals – a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling.” Environmental pollution, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 131-40.

Wu, K, Xu, X, Liu, Junxiao, Guo, Y, et al. 2010, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in umbilical cord blood and relevant factors in neonates from Guiyu, China.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 813-9.

Yu, Xiezhi 2008, “E-waste recycling heavily contaminates a Chinese city with cholinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins.” Organohalogen Compounds, vol. 70, pp. 813 – 816.

Yuan, J, Chen, L, Chen, Duohong, Guo, H, et al. 2008, “Elevated serum polybrominated diphenyl ethers and thyroid-stimulating hormone associated with lymphocytic micronuclei in Chinese workers from an E-waste dismantling site.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 2195-200.

Zennegg, M, Yu, X, Hung Wong, M & Weber, R 2009, “Fingerprints of chlorinated,brominated and mixed halogenaed dioxins at two e-waste recycling sites in Guiyu, China.” Organohalogen Compounds, vol. 71, pp. 2263-2267.

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Health and Toxicology of Building Flame Retardants

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Alaee, M 2003, “An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release.” Environment International, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 683-689.

BSEF 2009, HBCD Fact Sheet., BSEF, Brussels, Belgium.

Cantón, RF, Peijnenburg, AACM, Hoogenboom, RLAP, Piersma, AH, et al. 2008, “Subacute effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on hepatic gene expression profiles in rats.” Toxicology and applied pharmacology, vol. 231, no. 2, pp. 267-72.

Chengelis, C 2001, A 90-day oral (gavage) toxicity study of HBCD in rats. WIL-186012., Chemical Manufacturers Association, Arlington, VA.

Covaci, A, Gerecke, AC, Law, RJ, Voorspoels, S, et al. 2006, “Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the environment and humans: a review.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 3679-88.

Darnerud, P 2003, “Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife.” Environment International, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 841-853.

Dingemans, MML, Heusinkveld, HJ, Groot, A de, Bergman, Ake, et al. 2009, “Hexabromocyclododecane inhibits depolarization-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels and neurotransmitter release in PC12 cells.” Toxicological sciences, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 490-7.

Ema, M, Fujii, S, Hirata-Koizumi, M & Matsumoto, M 2008, “Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane in rats.” Reproductive toxicology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 335-51.

Fernandes, A, Dicks, P, Mortimer, D, Gem, M, et al. 2008, “Brominated and chlorinated dioxins, PCBs and brominated flame retardants in Scottish shellfish: methodology, occurrence and human dietary exposure.” Molecular nutrition & food research, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 238-49.

Fängström, B, Athanassiadis, I, Odsjö, T, Norén, K & Bergman, Ake 2008, “Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in milk from Stockholm mothers, 1980-2004.” Molecular nutrition & food research, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 187-93.

Germer, S, Piersma, AH, Der Ven, L van, Kamyschnikow, A, et al. 2006, “Subacute effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A on hepatic cytochrome P450 levels in rats.” Toxicology, vol. 218, no. 2-3, pp. 229-36.

Hamers, T, Kamstra, JH, Sonneveld, E, Murk, AJ, et al. 2006, “In vitro profiling of the endocrine-disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants.” Toxicological sciences, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 157-73.

Harrad, S, Abdallah, MA-E, Rose, NL, Turner, SD & Davidson, TA 2009, “Current-use brominated flame retardants in water, sediment, and fish from English lakes.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 43, no. 24, pp. 9077-83.

Harrad, S, Wit, CA de, Abdallah, MA-E, Bergh, C, et al. 2010, “Indoor contamination with hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluoroalkyl compounds: an important exposure pathway for people?” Environmental science & technology, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 3221-31.

He, M-J, Luo, X-J, Yu, L-H, Liu, J, et al. 2010, “Tetrabromobisphenol-A and hexabromocyclododecane in birds from an e-waste region in South China: influence of diet on diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific distribution and trophodynamics.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 5748-54.

Helleday, T, Tuominen, KL, Bergman, A & Jenssen, D 1999, “Brominated flame retardants induce intragenic recombination in mammalian cells.” Mutation research, vol. 439, no. 2, pp. 137-47.

Johansson, A-K, Sellström, U, Lindberg, P, Bignert, A & De Witt, CA 2009, “Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns, hexabromocyclododecane, and brominated biphenyl 153 in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.” Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 9-17.

Johnson-Restrepo, B, Adams, DH & Kannan, K 2008, “Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in tissues of humans, dolphins, and sharks from the United States.” Chemosphere, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 1935-44.

Kajiwara, N & Takigami, H 2010, “Behavior of additive brominated flame retardants in textile products.,” in 5th International Symposium on Brominated Flame Retardants, Kyoto, Japan.

Kakimoto, K, Akutsu, K, Konishi, Y & Tanaka, Y 2008, “Time trend of hexabromocyclododecane in the breast milk of Japanese women.” Chemosphere, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 1110-4.

Lam, JCW, Lau, RKF, Murphy, MB & Lam, PKS 2009, “Temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and detection of two novel flame retardants in marine mammals from Hong Kong, South China.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 43, no. 18, pp. 6944-9.

Law, K, Halldorson, T, Danell, R, Stern, G, et al. 2006, “Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of some brominated flame retardants in a Lake Winnipeg (Canada) food web.” Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 2177-86.

Law, RJ, Allchin, Colin R, Boer, J de, Covaci, A, et al. 2006, “Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the European environment.” Chemosphere, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 187-208.

Letcher, RJ, Gebbink, WA, Sonne, C, Born, EW, et al. 2009, “Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of brominated and chlorinated contaminants and their metabolites in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland.” Environment international, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1118-24.

Lilienthal, H, Der Ven, LTM van, Piersma, AH & Vos, JG 2009, “Effects of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on dopamine-dependent behavior and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.” Toxicology letters, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 63-72.

Mariussen, E & Fonnum, F “The effect of brominated flame retardants on neurotransmitter uptake into rat brain synaptosomes and vesicles.” Neurochemistry international, vol. 43, no. 4-5, pp. 533-42.

Reistad, T, Fonnum, F & Mariussen, E 2006, “Neurotoxicity of the pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71, and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in rat cerebellar granule cells in vitro.” Archives of toxicology, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 785-96.

Ronisz, D, Finne, EF, Karlsson, H & Förlin, L 2004, “Effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), on hepatic enzymes and other biomarkers in juvenile rainbow trout and feral eelpout.” Aquatic toxicology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 229-45.

Roze, E, Meijer, L, Bakker, A, Van Braeckel, KNJA, et al. 2009, “Prenatal exposure to organohalogens, including brominated flame retardants, influences motor, cognitive, and behavioral performance at school age.” Environmental health perspectives, vol. 117, no. 12, pp. 1953-8.

Shaw, SD, Berger, ML, Brenner, D, Kannan, K, et al. 2009, “Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in the northwest Atlantic marine food web.” The Science of the total environment, vol. 407, no. 10, pp. 3323-9.

Stapleton, H M, Dodder, NG, Kucklick, JR, Reddy, CM, et al. 2006, “Determination of HBCD, PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded between 1993 and 2003.” Marine pollution bulletin, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 522-31.

Stapleton, Heather M, Allen, JG, Kelly, SM, Konstantinov, A, et al. 2008, “Alternate and new brominated flame retardants detected in U.S. house dust.” Environmental science & technology, vol. 42, no. 18, pp. 6910-6.

Swedish Chemicals Agency 2008, Risk assessment, hexabromocyclododecane. Final report., European Commission, Luxembourg.

Tanabe, S, Ramu, K, Isobe, T & Takahashi, S 2008, “Brominated flame retardants in the environment of Asia-Pacific: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.” Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 188-97.

Thomsen, C, Stigum, H, Frøshaug, M, Broadwell, SL, et al. 2010, “Determinants of brominated flame retardants in breast milk from a large scale Norwegian study.” Environment international, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 68-74.

UNEP/POPS/POPRC 2009, Proposal to list hexabromocyclododecane in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants., Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.

Ven, LTM van der, De Kuil, T van, Leonards, PEG, Slob, W, et al. 2009, “Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.” Toxicology letters, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 51-62.

Ven, LTM van der, Verhoef, A, De Kuil, T van, Slob, W, et al. 2006, “A 28-day oral dose toxicity study enhanced to detect endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane in Wistar rats.” Toxicological sciences, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 281-92.

Wilson, A 2009, “Polystyrene insulation: Does it belong in a green building?” Environmental Building News, vol. 18, no. 8.

Wit, CA de 2002, “An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment.” Chemosphere, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 583-624.

Wit, CA de, Herzke, D & Vorkamp, K 2009, “Brominated flame retardants in the Arctic environment – trends and new candidates.” The Science of the total environment, vol. 408, no. 15, pp. 2885-918.

Yamada-Okabe, T, Sakai, H, Kashima, Y & Yamada-Okabe, H 2005, “Modulation at a cellular level of the thyroid hormone receptor-mediated gene expression by 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 4,4ʼ-diiodobiphenyl (DIB), and nitrofen (NIP).” Toxicology letters, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 127-33.

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PBB Epidemiology

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Joseph, A. D., Terrell, M. L., Small, C., Cameron, L. L., & Marcus, M. (2009). Assessing inter-generational transfer of a brominated flame retardant. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 11(4):802-807

Small, C. M., DeCaro, J. J., Terrell, M., Dominguez, C., Cameron, L. L., Wirth, J., & Marcus, M. (2009). Maternal exposure to a brominated flame retardant and genitourinary conditions in male offspring. Children’s Health, 117: 1175-1179

Terrell, M. L., Berzen, A. K., Small, C. M., Cameron, L. L., Wirth, J., & Marcus, M. (2009). A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Environmental Health, 8:35 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-8-35

Terrell, M. L., Manatunga, A. K., Small, C. M., Cameron, L. L., Wirth, J. J., Michels Blanck, H., Lyles, R. H., & Marcus, M. (2008) A decay model for assessing polybrominated biphenyl exposure among women in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 18(4)410-420

Givens, M. L., Small, C. M., Terrell, M. L., Cameron, L. L., Michels Blanck, H., Tolbert, P. E., Rubin, C., Henderson, A. K., & Marcus, M. (2007) Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age. Chemosphere, 69(8):1295-1304

Hoffman, C.S., Small, C.M., Michels Blanck, H., Tolbert, P., Rubin, C., & Marcus, M. (2007) Endometriosis among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls. Annals of Epidemiology, 17(7):503-510

Small, C.M., Cheslack-Postava, K., Terrell, M., Michels Blanck, H., Tolbert, P., Rubin, C., Henderson, A., & Marcus, M. (2007) Risk of spontaneous abortion among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls. Environmental Research, 105(2): 247-255

Sweeney, A.M. & Symanski, E. (2007) The influence of age at exposure to PBBs on birth outcomes. Environmental Research, 105(3):370–9.

Vasilu, O., Cameron, L., Gardiner, J., DeGuire, P., & Karmaus, W. (2006) Polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated biphenyls, body weight, and incidence of adult-onset diabetes mellitus. Epidemiology, 17(4):352-359

Davis, S.I., Michels Blanck, H., Hertzberg, V.S., Tolbert, P.E., Rubin, C., Cameron, L., Henderson, A.K., & Marcus, M. (2005) Menstrual function among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: a follow-up prevalence study. Environmental Health, 4:15

Michels Blanck, H., Marcus, M., Tolbert, P.E., Schuch, C., Rubin, C., Henderson, A.K., Zhang, R.H., & Hertzberg, V.S. (2004) Time to menopause in relation to PBBs, PCBs, and smoking. Maturitas, 49(2):97–106

Kaiser, R., Marcus, M., Michels Blanck, H., Naughton, M., Zhang, R.H., Henderson, A.K., Tolbert, P.E., Rubin, C.H., & Hertzberg, V.S. (2003) Polybrominated biphenyl exposure and benign breast disease in a cohort of US women. Annals of Epidemiology, 13(1):16-23

Michels Blanck, H., Marcus, M., Rubin, C., Tolbert, P.E., Hertzberg, V.S., Henderson, A.K., & Zhang, R.H. (2002) Growth in girls exposed in utero and postnatally to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls. Epidemiology, 13(2):205–10

Thomas, A.R., Marcus, M., Zhang, R.H., Michels Blanck, H.,Tolbert, P.E., Hertzberg, V., Henderson, A.K., & Rubin, C. (2001) Breast-feeding among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls in Michigan. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11):1133-1137

Michels Blanck, H., Marcus, M., Tolbert, P.E., Rubin, C., Henderson, A.K., Hertzberg, V.S., Zhang, R.H., & Cameron, L. (2000) Age at menarche and tanner stage in girls exposed in utero and postnatally to polybrominated biphenyl. Epidemiology, 11(6):641–7

Blanck, H.M., Marcus, M., Hertzberg, V., Tolbert, P.E., Rubin, C., Henderson, A., & Zhang, R. (2000) Determinants of polybrominated diphenyl serum decay among women in the Michigan PBB cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(2):147-52

Hoque, A., Sigurdson, A.J., Burau, K.D., Humphrey, H.E.B., Hess, K.R., & Sweeney, A.M. (1998) Cancer among a Michigan Cohort Exposed to Polybrominated Biphenyls in 1973. Epidemiology, Vol. 9, No. 4, (Jul., 1998), pp. 373-378

Henderson, A.K., Rosen, D., Miller, G.L., Figgs, L.W., Hoar Zahm, S., Susan M. Sieber, S.M., Rothman, N., Humphrey, H.E.B., & Sinks, T. (1995) Breast cancer among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls. Epidemiology, 6(5):544-54

Schwartz, E.M. & Rae, W.A. (1983) Effect of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) on developmental abilities in young children. American Journal of Public Health, 73: 277-281

Seagull, E.A.W. (1983) Developmental Abilities of Children Exposed to Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB). American Journal of Public Health, 73:281-285

Chanda, J.J., Anderson, H.A., Glamb, R.W., Lomatch, D.L., Wolff, M.S., Voorhees, J.J., & Selikoff, I.J. (1982) Cutaneous effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): The Michigan PBB incident. Environmental Research, 29: 97-108

Stross, J.K., Smokler, I.A., Isbister, J., & Wilcox, K.R. (1981) The human health effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 58:145-150

Weil, W.B., Spencer, M., Benjamin, D., & Seagull, E. (1981) The effect of polybrominated biphenyl on infants and young children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 98(1):47-51

Brown, G.G. & Nixon, R. (1979) Exposure to polybrominated biphenyls: Some effects on personality and cognitive functioning. Journal of the American Medical Association, 242(6):523-527

Barr, Jr., M. (1978) Pediatric health aspects of PBBs. Environmental Health Perspectives, 23:291-294

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Highly Fluorinated Chemicals

Armitage J, Schenker U, Scheringer M, Martin J, Macleod M, Cousins I. 2009. Modeling the Global Fate and Transport of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Precursor Compounds in Relation to Temporal Trends in Wildlife Exposure. Environmental Science and Technology 43 (24):9274-9280; doi:10.1021/es901448p.

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Antimicrobials, Toxicity and Health

Adolfsson-Erici, M., Pettersson, M., Parkkonen, J., & Sturve, J. (2002). Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the aquatic environment in Sweden. Chemosphere, 46(9–10), 1485–1489. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00255-7

Ahn, K. C., Zhao, B., Chen, J., Cherednichenko, G., Sanmarti, E., Denison, M. S., … Hammock, B. D. (2008). In vitro biologic activities of the antimicrobials triclocarban, its analogs, and triclosan in bioassay screens: Receptor-based bioassay screens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(9), 1203–1210. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.11200

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Allmyr, M., Harden, F., Toms, L. M. L., Mueller, J. F., McLachlan, M. S., Adolfsson-Erici, M., & Sandborgh-Englund, G. (2008). The influence of age and gender on triclosan concentrations in Australian human blood serum. Science of the Total Environment, 393(1), 162–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.12.006

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Alvarez-Rivera, G., Llompart, M., Garcia-Jares, C., & Lores, M. (2016). Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin. Journal of Chromatography A, 1440, 37–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.02.066

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Antunes, S. C., Nunes, B., Rodrigues, S., Nunes, R., Fernandes, J., & Correia, A. T. (2016). Effects of chronic exposure to benzalkonium chloride in Oncorhynchus mykiss : cholinergic neurotoxicity , oxidative stress , peroxidative damage and genotoxicity. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 45, 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2016.04.016

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Geer, L. A., Pycke, B. F. G., Waxenbaum, J., Sherer, D. M., Abulafia, O., & Halden, R. U. (2016). Association of birth outcomes with fetal exposure to parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in an immigrant population in Brooklyn, New York. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 323(Part A), 177–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.03.028

Geiß, C., Ruppert, K., Heidelbach, T., & Oehlmann, J. (2016). The antimicrobial agents triclocarban and triclosan as potent modulators of reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae). Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 4529(August), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2016.1206388

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Li, X., Ying, G. G., Su, H. C., Yang, X. B., & Wang, L. (2010). Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles. Environment International, 36(6), 557–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.009

Liao, C., Liu, F., Guo, Y., Moon, H.-B., Nakata, H., Wu, Q., & Kannan, K. (2012). Occurrence of eight bisphenol analogues in indoor dust from the United States and several Asian countries: implications for human exposure. Environmental Science {&} Technology, 46(16), 9138–9145. https://doi.org/10.1021/es302004w

Louis, G. W., Hallinger, D. R., & Stoker, T. E. (2013). The effect of triclosan on the uterotrophic response to extended doses of ethinyl estradiol in the weanling rat. Reproductive Toxicology, 36, 71–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.12.001

Maher, B. (2008). Lab disinfectant harms mouse fertility. Nature, 453(7198), 964. https://doi.org/10.1038/453964a

Marambio-Jones, C., & Hoek, E. (2010). A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 12(5), 1531–1551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-010-9900-y

Marshall, N. B., Lukomska, E., Long, C. M., Kashon, M. L., Sharpnack, D. D., Nayak, A. P., … Anderson, S. E. (2015). Triclosan induces thymic stromal lymphopoietin in skin promoting Th2 allergic responses. Toxicological Sciences, 147(1), 127–139. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfv113

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Menoutis, J., & Parisi, A. I. (2002). Testing for Dioxin and Furan Contamination in Triclosan. Cosmetics {&} Toiletries, 117(10), 75–78.

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Paul, K. B., Hedge, J. M., Bansal, R., Zoeller, R. T., Peter, R., Devito, M. J., & Crofton, K. M. (2013). Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal, Fetal, and Early Neonatal Thyroxine: Dynamic and Kinetic Evaluation of a Putative Mode-of-Action. Toxicology, 300(1–2), 31–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2012.05.023.Developmental

Paul, K. B., Hedge, J. M., Devito, M. J., & Crofton, K. M. (2010). Short-term exposure to triclosan decreases thyroxine in vivo via upregulation of hepatic catabolism in young long-evans rats. Toxicological Sciences, 113(2), 367–379. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfp271

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Pycke, B. F. G., Geer, L. A., Dalloul, M., Abulafia, O., Jenck, A. M., & Halden, R. U. (2014). Human fetal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in an urban population from Brooklyn, New York. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(15), 8831–8838. https://doi.org/10.1021/es501100w

Queckenberg, C., Meins, J., Wachall, B., Doroshyenko, O., Tomalik-Scharte, D., Bastian, B., … Fuhr, U. (2010). Absorption, pharmacokinetics, and safety of triclosan after dermal administration. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 54(1), 570–572. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00615-09

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Rodricks, J. V, Swenberg, J. A., Borzelleca, J. F., Maronpot, R. R., & Shipp, A. M. (2010). Triclosan: a critical review of the experimental data and development of margins of safety for consumer products. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 40(5), 422–484. https://doi.org/10.3109/10408441003667514

Sandborgh-Englund, G., Adolfsson-Erici, M., Odham, G., & Ekstrand, J. (2006). Pharmacokinetics of triclosan following oral ingestion in humans. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 69(20), 1861–1873. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390600631706

Savage, J. H., Johns, C. B., Hauser, R., & Litonjua, A. A. (2014). Urinary triclosan levels and recent asthma exacerbations. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 112(2), 179–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2013.11.017

Savage, J. H., Matsui, E. C., Wood, R. A., & Keet, C. A. (2012). Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 130(2), 453–460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2012.05.006

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Schebb, N. H., Inceoglu, B., Ahn, K. C., Morisseau, C., Gee, S. J., & Hammock, B. D. (2011). Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(7), 3109–3115. https://doi.org/10.1021/es103650m

Schettler, T. (2016). Antimicrobials in Hospital Furnishings : Do They Help Reduce Healthcare-Associated Infections? Healthcare Without Harm. Retrieved from https://noharm-uscanada.org/sites/default/files/documents-files/3854/Antimicrobials Report 2016_1.pdf

Schiffer, C., Muller, A., Egeberg, D., Alvarez, L., Brenker, C., Rehfeld, A., … Strunker, T. (2014). Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm. EMBO Reports, 15(7), 758–765. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.15252%2Fembr.201438869

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Sicherer, S. H., & Leung, D. Y. M. (2013). Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 131(1), 55–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2014.12.1906

Spanier, A. J., Fausnight, T., Camacho, T. F., & Braun, J. M. (2014). The associations of triclosan and paraben exposure with allergen sensitization and wheeze in children. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, 35(6), 475–481.

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Stoker, T. E., Gibson, E. K., & Zorrilla, L. M. (2010). Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the female wistar rat. Toxicological Sciences, 117(1), 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq180

Swanson, M., & Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2016). Project TENDR : Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks. The TENDR Consensus Statement. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(7), 118–122.

Syed, A. K., Ghosh, S., Love, N. G., & Boles, B. R. (2014). Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. MBio., 5. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01015-13

Tarnow, P., Tralau, T., Hunecke, D., & Luch, A. (2013). Effects of triclocarban on the transcription of estrogen, androgen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive genes in human breast cancer cells. Toxicology in Vitro, 27(5), 1467–1475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2013.03.003

Tobar, S., Tordesillas, L., & Berin, M. C. (2016). Triclosan promotes epicutaneous sensitization to peanut in mice. Clinical and Translational Allergy, 6(13). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13601-016-0102-2

Toms, L.-M. L., Allmyr, M., Mueller, J. F., Adolfsson-Erici, M., McLachlan, M., Murby, J., & Harden, F. A. (2011). Triclosan in individual human milk samples from Australia. Chemosphere, 85(11), 1682–1686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.08.009

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Antimicrobials and the Environment

Adolfsson-Erici, M., Pettersson, M., Parkkonen, J., & Sturve, J. (2002). Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the aquatic environment in Sweden. Chemosphere, 46(9–10), 1485–1489. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00255-7

Al-Rajab, A. J., Sabourin, L., Scott, A., Lapen, D. R., & Topp, E. (2009). Impact of biosolids on the persistence and dissipation pathways of triclosan and triclocarban in an agricultural soil. Science of the Total Environment, 407(23), 5978–5985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.08.003

Anger, C. T., Sueper, C., Blumentritt, D. J., McNeill, K., Engstrom, D. R., & Arnold, W. A. (2013). Quantification of triclosan, chlorinated triclosan derivatives, and their dioxin photoproducts in lacustrine sediment cores. Environmental Science and Technology, 47(4), 1833–1843. https://doi.org/10.1021/es3045289

Aranami, K., & Readman, J. W. (2007). Photolytic degradation of triclosan in freshwater and seawater. Chemosphere, 66(6), 1052–1056. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.07.010

Arnot, J. A., Mackay, D., Webster, E., & Southwood, J. M. (2006). Screening level risk assessment model for chemical fate and effects in the environment – Supporting Information. Environmental Science {&} Technology, 40(7), 2316–2323. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Aryal, N., & Reinhold, D. M. (2011). Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials from biosolids: Impacts on environmental fate and relevance to human exposure. Water Research, 45(17), 5545–5552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.08.027

Bacchetta, C., Ale, A., Simoniello, M. F., Gervasio, S., Davico, C., Rossi, A. S., … Cazenave, J. (2017). Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in fish after a short-term exposure to silver nanoparticles. Ecological Indicators, 76, 230–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.01.018

Balmer, M. E., Poiger, T., Droz, C., Romanin, K., Bergqvist, P.-A., Müller, M. D., & Buser, H.-R. (2004). Occurrence of Methyl Triclosan, a Transformation Product of the Bactericide Triclosan, in Fish from Various Lakes in Switzerland. Environmental Science and Technology, 38(2), 390–395. https://doi.org/10.1021/es030068p

Bedoux, G., Roig, B., Thomas, O., Dupont, V., & Le Bot, B. (2012). Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19(4), 1044–1065. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0632-z

Beecher, N., Crawford, K., Goldstein, N., Kester, G., Lono-Batura, M., & Dziezyk, E. (2007). A National Biosolids Regulation, Quality, End Use {&} Disposal Survey Final Report.

Bester, K. (2003). Triclosan in a sewage treatment process – Balances and monitoring data. Water Research, 37(16), 3891–3896. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00335-X

Bester, K. (2005). Fate of triclosan and triclosan-methyl in sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 49(1), 9–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-004-0155-4

Binelli, A., Cogni, D., Parolini, M., Riva, C., & Provini, A. (2009). In vivo experiments for the evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Triclosan in Zebra mussel hemocytes. Aquatic Toxicology, 91(3), 238–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.11.008

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Venkatesan, A. K., Pycke, B. F. G., Barber, L. B., Lee, K. E., & Halden, R. U. (2012). Occurrence of triclosan, triclocarban, and its lesser chlorinated congeners in Minnesota freshwater sediments collected near wastewater treatment plants. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 229230, 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.049

von der Ohe, P. C., Schmitt-Jansen, M., Slobodnik, J., & Brack, W. (2012). Triclosan-the forgotten priority substance? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19(2), 585–591. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0580-7

Walters, E., McClellan, K., & Halden, R. U. (2010). Occurrence and loss over three years of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products from biosolids-soil mixtures in outdoor mesocosms. Water Research, 44(20), 6011–6020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.051

Waltman, E. L., Venables, B. J., & Waller, W. T. (2006). Triclosan in a north Texas wastewater treatment plant and the influent and effluent of an experimental constructed wetland. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25(2), 367–372. https://doi.org/10.1897/05-112r.1

Wu, C., Spongberg, A. L., Witter, J. D., Fang, M., & Czajkowski, K. P. (2010). Uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by soybean plants from soils applied with biosolids and irrigated with contaminated water. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(16), 6157–6161. https://doi.org/10.1021/es1011115

Wu, X., Ernst, F., Conkle, J. L., & Gan, J. (2013). Comparative uptake and translocation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by common vegetables. Environment International, 60, 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2013.07.015

Xiang, L., Sun, T., Zheng, M., Li, Y., Li, H., & Wong, M. (2016). Sorption of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) to agricultural soils. Science of the Total Environment, 560561, 197–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.235

Xiang, L., Wang, X., Li, Y., Huang, X., Wu, X., Zhao, H., … Mo, C. (2015). Analysis of Trace Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) in Vegetables Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Gas Chromatography − Mass Spectrometry †. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 63(30), 6689–6697. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01828

Xie, Z., Ebinghaus, R., Floser, G., Caba, A., & Ruck, W. (2008). Occurrence and distribution of triclosan in the German Bight (North Sea). Environmental Pollution, 156(3), 1190–1195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.04.008

Xu, X., Lu, Y., Zhang, D., Wang, Y., Zhou, X., Xu, H., & Mei, Y. (2015). Toxic Assessment of Triclosan and Triclocarban on Artemia salina. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 95(2011), 728–733. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1641-2

Zhang, C., Cui, F., Zeng, G., Jiang, M., Yang, Z., Yu, Z., … Shen, L. (2015). Quaternary ammonium compounds ( QACs ): A review on occurrence , fate and toxicity in the environment. Science of the Total Environment, 518519, 352–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.007

Zheng, G. J., Leung, A. O. W., Jiao, L. P., & Wong, M. H. (2008). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans pollution in China: Sources, environmental levels and potential human health impacts. Environment International, 34(7), 1050–1061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2008.02.011

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Efficacy of Antimicrobials

Aiello, A. E., Coulborn, R. M., Perez, V., & Larson, E. L. (2008). Effect of hand hygiene on infectious diseases risk in the community setting: ameta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), 1372–1381. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610

Aiello, A. E., Larson, E. L., & Levy, S. B. (2007). Consumer antibacterial soaps: effective or just risky? Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 45 Suppl 2, S137–S147. https://doi.org/10.1086/519255

CDC. (2003). Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (Vol. 52).

FDA. (2016). 21 CFR Part 310 Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. Federal Register.

Giuliano, C. A., & Rybak, M. J. (2015). Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: A focused review. Pharmacotherapy, 35(3), 328–336. https://doi.org/10.1002/phar.1553

Halden, R. U. (2014). On the Need and Speed of Regulating Triclosan and Triclocarban in the United States. Environmental Science {&} Technology, 48(7), 3603–3611. https://doi.org/10.1021/es500495p

Huberts, J. D. W., Schmidt, W., & Words, K. (2016). American Journal of Infection Control Exploring the potential of antimicrobial hand hygiene products in reducing the infectious burden in low-income countries : An integrative review. AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control, 44(7), 764–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2016.01.045

Jones, R. D., Jampani, H. B., Newman, J. L., & Lee, a S. (2000). Triclosan: a review of effectiveness and safety in health care settings. American Journal of Infection Control, 28(2), 184–196. https://doi.org/10.1067/mic.2000.102378

KEMI Swedish Chemical Agency. (2015). Antibacterial treatment of clothes – does it really have an effect? Measurement of antibacterial effects of treated apparel before and after washing. Stockholm. Retrieved from https://www.kemi.se/global/pm/2015/pm-8-15-antibacterial-treatment-of-clothes.pdf

Kim, S. A., & Rhee, M. S. (2016). Microbicidal effects of plain soap vs triclocarban-based antibacterial soap. Journal of Hospital Infection, 94(3), 276–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2016.07.010

Lamont, R. P. (2014). Triclosan produces statistically significant reduction in plaque, gingivitis and caries but not clinically important benefit. Evidence-Based Dentistry, 15, 6–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ebd.6400980

Møretrø, T., Høiby-Pettersen, G. S., Habimana, O., Heir, E., & Langsrud, S. (2011). Assessment of the antibacterial activity of a triclosan-containing cutting board. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 146(2), 157–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.02.017

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