The Madrid Statement

The Madrid Statement documents the scientific consensus regarding the persistence and potential for harm of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and lays out a roadmap to gather needed information and prevent further harm.
It was published in the May 2015 issue of the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

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The Madrid Statement on Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

As scientists and other professionals from a variety of disciplines, we are concerned about the production and release into the environment of an increasing number of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for the following reasons:

  1. PFASs are man-made and found everywhere. PFASs are highly persistent, as they contain perfluorinated chains that only degrade very slowly, if at all, under environmental conditions. It is documented that some polyfluorinated chemicals break down to form perfluorinated ones[1].
  2. PFASs are found in the indoor and outdoor environments, wildlife, and human tissue and bodily fluids all over the globe. They are emitted via industrial processes and military and firefighting operations[2], [3], and they migrate out of consumer products into air[4], household dust[5], food[6], [7], [8], soil[9], [10], ground and surface water, and make their way into drinking water[11], [12].
  3. In animal studies, some long-chain PFASs have been found to cause liver toxicity, disruption of lipid metabolism, the immune and endocrine systems, adverse neurobehavioral effects, neonatal toxicity and death, and tumors in multiple organ systems[13], [14]. In the growing body of epidemiological evidence, some of these effects are supported by significant or suggestive associations between specific long-chain PFASs and adverse outcomes, including associations with testicular and kidney cancers[15], [16], liver malfunction[17], hypothyroidism[18], high cholesterol[19], [20], ulcerative colitis[21], lower birth weight and size[22], obesity[23], decreased immune response to vaccines[24], and reduced hormone levels and delayed puberty[25].
  4. Due to their high persistence, global distribution, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity, some PFASs have been listed under the Stockholm Convention[26] as persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
  5. As documented in the Helsingør Statement[27],
    • Although some of the long-chain PFASs are being regulated or phased out, the most common replacements are short-chain PFASs with similar structures, or compounds with fluorinated segments joined by ether linkages.
    • While some shorter-chain fluorinated alternatives seem to be less bioaccumulative, they are still as environmentally persistent as long-chain substances or have persistent degradation products. Thus, a switch to short-chain and other fluorinated alternatives may not reduce the amounts of PFASs in the environment. In addition, because some of the shorter-chain PFASs are less effective, larger quantities may be needed to provide the same performance.
    • While many fluorinated alternatives are being marketed, little information is publicly available on their chemical structures, properties, uses, and toxicological profiles.
    • Increasing use of fluorinated alternatives will lead to increasing levels of stable perfluorinated degradation products in the environment, and possibly also in biota and humans. This would increase the risks of adverse effects on human health and the environment.
  6. Initial efforts to estimate the overall emissions of PFASs into the environment have been limited due to uncertainties related to product formulations, quantities of production, production locations, efficiency of emission controls, and long-term trends in production history[28].
  7. The technical capacity to destroy PFASs is currently insufficient in many parts of the world.

Global action through the Montreal Protocol[29] successfully reduced the use of the highly persistent ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), thus allowing for the recovery of the ozone layer. However, many of the organofluorine replacements for CFCs are still of concern due to their high global warming potential. It is essential to learn from such past efforts and take measures at the international level to reduce the use of PFASs in products and prevent their replacement with fluorinated alternatives in order to avoid long-term harm to human health and the environment.

For these reasons, we call on the international community to cooperate in limiting the production and use of PFASs and in developing safer non-fluorinated alternatives. We therefore urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers to take the following actions:

A. Scientists:

  1. Assemble, in collaboration with industry and governments, a global inventory of all PFASs in use or in the environment, including precursors and degradation products, their functionality, properties, and toxicology.
  2. Develop analytical methods for the identification and quantification of additional families of PFASs, including fluorinated alternatives.
  3. Continue monitoring for legacy PFASs in different matrices and for environmental reservoirs of PFASs.
  4. Continue investigating the mechanisms of toxicity and exposure (e.g., sources, fate, transport, and bioaccumulation of PFASs), and improve methods for testing the safety of alternatives.
  5. Bring research results to the attention of policy makers, industry, the media, and the public.

B. Governments:

  1. Enact legislation to require only essential uses of PFASs and enforce labeling to indicate uses.
  2. Require manufacturers of PFASs to
    • conduct more extensive toxicological testing,
    • make chemical structures public,
    • provide validated analytical methods for detection of PFASs, and
    • assume extended producer responsibility and implement safe disposal of products and stockpiles containing PFASs.
  3. Work with industry to develop public registries of products containing PFASs.
  4. Make public annual statistical data on production, imports, and exports of PFASs.
  5. Whenever possible, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs in government procurement.
  6. In collaboration with industry, ensure that an infrastructure is in place to safely transport, dispose of, and destroy PFASs and PFAS-containing products, and enforce these measures.

C. Chemical manufacturers:

  1. Make data on PFASs publicly available, including chemical structures, properties, and toxicology.
  2. Provide scientists with standard samples of PFAS, including precursors and degradation products, to enable environmental monitoring of PFASs.
  3. Provide the supply chain with documentation on PFASs content and safe disposal guidelines.
  4. Work with scientists and governments to develop safe disposal methods for PFASs.
  5. Develop nonfluorinated alternatives that are neither persistent nor toxic.

D. Product manufacturers and other professional users:

  1. Stop using PFASs where they are not essential or when safer alternatives exist.
  2. Develop inexpensive and sensitive PFAS quantification methods for compliance testing.
  3. Label products containing PFASs, including chemical identity and disposal guidelines.
  4. Invest in the development and use of nonfluorinated alternatives.

 E. Purchasing organizations, retailers, and individual consumers:

  1. Whenever possible, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs. These include many products that are stain-resistant, waterproof, or non-stick.
  2. Question the use of such fluorinated “performance” chemicals added to consumer products.

 

References

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[2] Darwin RL. 2011. Estimated inventory of PFOS-based aqueous film forming foam (AFFF). Arlington, VA:Fire Fighter Fighting Foam Coalition. Available: http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/POPsReviewCommittee/Meetings/POPRC7/POPRC7Followup/Requestsforinformation/RequestsforcommentsbyPOPRC7IWGs/CommentsonPFOSinopenapplications/tabid/2746/ctl/Download/mid/8994/Default.aspx?id=12&ObjID=14391 [accessed 6 April 2015].
[3] Fire Fighting Foam Coalition. 2014. Fact Sheet on AFFF Fire Fighting Agents. Arlington, VA: Fire Firghting Foam Coalition. Available: http://www.fffc.org/images/AFFFfactsheet14.pdf [accessed 6 April 2015].
[4] Shoeib M, Harner T, Webster GM, Lee SC. 2011. Indoor sources of poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCS) in Vancouver, Canada: Implications for human exposure. Environ Sci Technol 45(19):7999-8005; doi:10.1021/es103562v.
[5] Björklund JA, Thuresson K, de Wit CA. 2009. Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust: concentrations, human exposure estimates, and sources. Environ Sci Technol 43(7):2276-2281; doi:10.1021/es803201a.
[6] Begley TH, Hsu W, Noonan G, Diachenko G. 2008. Migration of fluorochemical-paper additives from food-contact paper into foods and food simulants. Food Addit Contam Part A 25(3):384-390; doi:10.1080/02652030701513784.
[7] Trier X, Granby K, Christensen JH. 2011. Polyfluorinated surfactants (PFS) in paper and board coatings for food packaging. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 18(7):1108-1120; doi:10.1007/s11356-010-0439-3.
[8] Tittlemier SA, Pepper K, Seymour C, Moisey J, Bronson, R, Cao XL, et al. 2007. Dietary exposure of Canadians to perfluorinated carboxylates and perfluorooctane sulfonate via consumption of meat, fish, fast foods, and food items prepared in their packaging. J Agric Food Chem 55(8):3203-3210; doi:10.1021/jf0634045.
[9] Strynar MJ, Lindstrom AB, Nakayama SF, Egeghy PP, Helfant LJ. 2012. Pilot scale application of a method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in surface soils. Chemosphere 86(3):252-257; doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.09.036.
[10] Sepulvado JG, Blaine AC, Hundal LS, Higgins CP. 2011. Occurrence and fate of perfluorochemicals in soil following the land application of municipal biosolids. Environ Sci Technol 45(19):8106-8112.
[11] Rahman MF, Peldszus S, Anderson WB. Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: A review. Water Res 50:318-340; doi:10.1016/j.watres.2013.10.045.
[12] Eschauzier C, Beerendonk E, Scholte-Veenendaal P, De Vogt P. 2012. Impact of treatment processes on the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in the drinking water production chain. Environ Sci Technol 46(3):1708-1715; doi:10.1021/es201662b.
[13] Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J. 2007. Perfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring & toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99(2):366-394.
[14] Post GB, Cohn PD, Cooper KR. 2012. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an emerging drinking water contaminant: A critical review of recent literature. Environ Res 116:93-117; doi:10.1016/j.envres.2012.03.007.
[15] Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Lauby-Secretan B, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, Ghissassi FE, et al. 2014. Carcinogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid, tetrafluoroethylene, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,3-propane sultone. Lancet Oncol 15(9):924-925; doi:10.1016/ S1470-2045(14)70316-X.
[16] Barry V, Winquist A, Steenland K. 2013. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposures and incident cancers among adults living near a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect 121(11-12):1313–1318; doi:10.1289/ehp.1306615.
[17] Gallo V, Leonardi G, Genser B, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Frisbee SJ, Karlsson L, et al. 2012. Serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations and liver function biomarkers in a population with elevated PFOA exposure. Environ Health Perspect 120(5):655-660; doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104436.
[18] Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Mondal D, Armstrong B, Bloom MS, Fletcher T. 2012. Thyroid function and perfluoroalkyl acids in children living near a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect 120(7):1036-1041; doi:10.1289/es1104370.
[19] Fitz-Simon N, Fletcher T, Luster MI, Steenland K, Calafat AM, Kato K, et al. 2013. Reductions in serum lipids with a 4-year decline in serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Epidemiology 24(4):569-576.
[20] Nelson JW, Hatch EE, Webster TF. 2010. Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and cholesterol, body weight, and insulin resistance in the general U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect 118(2):197-202.
[21] Steenland K, Zhao L, Winquist A, Parks C. 2013. Ulcerative colitis and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a highly exposed population of community residents and workers in the Mid-Ohio Valley. Environ Health Perspect 121(8):900-905; doi:10.1289/ehp.1206449.
[22] Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. 2007. Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 115(11):1677-1682; doi:10.1289/ehp.10506.
[23] Halldorsson TI, Rytter D, Haug LS, Bech BH, Danielsen I, Becher G, et al. 2012. Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate and risk of overweight at 20 years of age: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 120(5):668-673; doi:10.1289/ehp.1104034.
[24] Grandjean P, Andersen EW, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Nielsen F, Mølbak K, Weihe P, et al. 2012. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds. J American Med Assoc 307(4): 391-397; doi:10.1001/jama.2011.2034.
[25] Lopez-Espinosa M, Fletcher T, Armstrong B, Genser B, Dhatariya K, Mondal D, et al. 2011. Association of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) with age of puberty among children living near a chemical plant. Environ Sci Technol 45(19):8160-8166; doi:10.1021/es1038694.
[26] United Nations Environment Programme. 2009. The new POPs under the Stockholm Convention. Châtelaine, Switzerland: Stockholm Convention, United Nations Environment Programme. Available: http://chm.pops.int/Implementation/NewPOPs/TheNewPOPs/tabid/672/Default.aspx [accessed 6 April 2015].
[27] Scheringer M, Trier X, Cousins IT, de Voogt P, Fletcher T, Wang Z, et al. 2014. Helsingør Statement on poly- & perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). Chemosphere 114: 337-339; doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.044.
[28] Wang Z, Cousins IT, Scheringer M, Buck RC, Hungerbühler K. 2014. Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: the remaining pieces of the puzzle. Environ Int 69:166-176; doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.006.
[29] United Nations Environment Programme. 2012. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Nairobi, Kenya:Montreal Protocol, United Nations Environment Programme. Available: http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/Treaties/treaties_decisions-hb.php?sec_id=5 [accessed 6 April 2015].

 

Sign the Madrid Statement

Please fill out the form below to sign the Madrid Statement on per- and polyfluorinated chemicals.
The names of all new sign-ons will be posted as an appendix to the published Madrid Statement on this and other websites.

Authors and Signatories

This statement is authored and signed by the individual scientists and other professionals listed separately below. Please note that the views are those of the authors and signatories; institutional affiliations are provided for identification purposes only.

Authors

  1. Arlene Blum, Ph.D., Visiting Scholar, Dept. of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; Executive Director, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
  2. Simona A. Balan, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
  3. Martin Scheringer, PD Dr., Senior Scientist, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  4. Gretta Goldenman, President, European Centre on Sustainable Policies for Human and Environmental Rights (ECOSPHERE), Brussels, Belgium
  5. Xenia Trier, MSc, Ph.D., Research Chemist, Division of Food Chemistry, DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
  6. Ian Cousins, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  7. Miriam Diamond, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  8. Tony Fletcher, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  9. Christopher Higgins, PhD, Associate Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA
  10. Avery E. Lindeman, MSc, Deputy Director, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
  11. Graham Peaslee, Ph.D., Hartgerink Professor of Chemistry, Chemistry Department, Hope College, Holland, MI, USA
  12. Pim de Voogt, Ph.D., Professor, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  13. Zhanyun Wang, Dr. sc., Postdoctoral Fellow, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  14. Roland Weber, Ph.D., Chemist, Environmental Consultant, POPs Environmental Consulting, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany

Signatories

  1. Ovokeroye Abafe, Researcher, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  2. Marlene Ågerstrand, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  3. Lutz Ahrens, PhD, Research Scientist, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
  4. Laura Anderko, PhD, Professor, Health Systems and Policy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
  5. Beatriz H. Aristizabal, PhD, Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia, Manizales, Colombia
  6. Abel Arkenbout, PhD, Chairman, ToxicoWatch Foundation, Harlingen, the Netherlands
  7. Misha Askren, MD, Physician, Urgent Care, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, California, USA
  8. Jannicke Bakkejord, Senior Engineer, National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway
  9. Julia Bangerter, MA, Junior Campaigner, Greenpeace, Rapperswil-Jona, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
  10. Jia Bao, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.
  11. Georg Becher, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Exposure and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  12. Thea Bechshoft, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
  13. Peter Behnisch, PhD, Director, BioDetection System, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  14. Susanne Bejerot, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  15. Stephen Bent, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
  16. Urs Berger, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  17. Åke Bergman, PhD, Executive Director and Professor, Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden
  18. Vladimir Beškoski, PhD, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  19. Emmanuelle Bichon, Scientific and Technical Support Manager, Oniris, Nantes-Atlantic College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering, Nantes, France
  20. Filip Bjurlid, PhD Student, Man– Technology–Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  21. Tara Blank, PhD, Consultant, Elixir Environmental, Ridgefield, Connecticut, USA
  22. Daniel Borg, PhD, Toxicology Consultant, Trossa AB, Stockholm, Sweden
  23. Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, PhD, Professor, Department of Health and Environment, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
  24. Hindrik Bouwman, PhD, Lecturer, Zoology Group, North-West University, Mahikeng, South Africa
  25. Lindsay Bramwell, MSc, Research Associate, Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
  26. Knut Breivik, PhD, Senior Scientist and Professor, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
  27. Katja Broeg, PhD, Researcher, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  28. Phil Brown, PhD, University Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Health Sciences, and Director, Social Science Environmental Health Research Institute, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  29. Thomas Bruton, MS, PhD Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
  30. David Camann, MS, Technical Advisor, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, USA
  31. Louise Camenzuli, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  32. Elina CarblomBachelor in Nutrition, Owner, Rätten att veta, Borlänge, Sweden
  33. Argelia Castaño, PhD, Head of Department, Area of Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain
  34. Carmela Centeno, Industrial Development Officer, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna, Austria
  35. Ibrahim Chahoud, PhD, Professor, Department of Toxicology, Charité– Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  36. Kai Hsien Chi, PhD, Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
  37. Eliza Chin, MD, MPH, Executive Director, American Medical Women’s Association, Reston, Virginia, USA
  38. Carsten Christophersen, PhD, Adjunct Professor, Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
  39. Theo Colborn (1927–2014), PhD, President Emeritus, TEDX (The Endocrine Disruption Exchange), Paonia, Colorado, USA
  40. Terrence J. Collins, PhD, Teresa
Heinz Professor of Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; and Director, Institute for Green Science, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  41. Johanna Congleton, MSPH, PhD, Senior Scientist, Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC, US
  42. Paul Connett, Ph.D., Director, Fluoride Action Network, Binghamton, New York USA
  43. Adrian Covaci, PhD, Professor, Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  44. Craig Criddle, PhD, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
  45. Oscar H. Fernández Cubero, Technician, National Food Center, Majadahonda, Spain
  46. Jordi Dachs, PhD, Research Scientist, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
  47. Patricia DeMarco, Ph.D., Researcher and Writer, Chemistry Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  48. Cynthia de Wit, PhD, Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  49. Barbara Demeneix, PhD, DSc, Professor, Department RDDM, National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France
  50. Pascal Diefenbacher, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  51. Michelle Douskey, PhD, Chemistry Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
  52. Timothy Elgren, PhD, Dean of Arts and Sciences, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, USA
  53. David Epel, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California, USA
  54. Ulrika Eriksson, PhD Student, Man– Technology–Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  55. Alexi Ernstoff, MS, PhD Student, Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
  56. Igor Eulaers, PhD Student, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  57. Heesoo Eun, PhD, Senior Researcher, Division of Organochemicals, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan
  58. Peter Fantke, PhD, Assistant Professor, Quantitative Sustainability Assessment Division, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
  59. Marko Filipovic, FilLic, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  60. Marie Frederiksen, Researcher, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, ­Denmark
  61. Carey Friedman, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  62. Barak GaleDoctor of Optometry, Retired, Self Employed, Seattle, Washington, USA
  63. Frederic Gallo, PhD, Senior Expert, Regional Activity Center for Sustainable Consumption and Production, Barcelona, Spain
  64. Joseph A. Gardella, Jr, PhD, Distinguished Professor and John and Frances Larkin Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Buffalo–The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
  65. Stephen Gardner, DVM, Veterinarian, Albany Animal Hospital, Richmond, California, USA
  66. Caroline Gaus, PhD, Professor, National Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  67. Wouter Gebbink, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  68. David Gee, PhD, Associate Fellow, Institute of Environment, Health, and Societies, Brunel University, Brunel, United Kingdom
  69. Philip Germansdefer, DHC Che, MS ChE, Director of International Sales and Marketing, Fluid Management Systems, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, USA
  70. Bondi Nxuma Gevao, PhD, Research Scientist, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait
  71. Melissa Gomis, MS, PhD Student, Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  72. Belen Gonzalez, PhD Student, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
  73. Peter Gringinger, MSc, Principal, Cardno, Sassafras, Victoria, Australia
  74. Adam Grochowalski, PhD, Professor, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krakow University of Technology, Krakow, Poland
  75. Ramon Guardans, Scientific Advisor, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Madrid, Spain
  76. Alexey Gusev, PhD, Senior Scientist, European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Meteorological Synthesizing Centre–East, Moscow, Russia
  77. Arno Gutleb, PhD, Project Leader, Department of Environment and Agro- Biotechnologies, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Belvaux, Luxembourg
  78. Emre Gücdemir, Sales and App. Specialist, Tetra Technological Systems
  79. Tenzing Gyalpo, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  80. Johannes Hädrich, PhD, Head, Research Laboratory, European Union Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, Freiburg, Germany
  81. Helen Håkansson, PhD, Professor of Toxicology and Chemicals Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  82. Rolf HaldenPhD, Professor & Director, Center for Environmental Security, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA
  83. Tomas Hansson, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  84. Mikael Harju, PhD, Senior Scientist, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
  85. Stuart Harrad, PhD, Professor of Environmental Chemistry, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
  86. Bernhard Hennig, PhD, Professor of Nutrition and Toxicology, and Director, University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
  87. Marcus HewitsonMBBS BSc(Med), Doctor of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, ACNEM, Ocean Shores, Australia.
  88. Eunha Hoh, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
  89. Sandra Huber, PhD, Senior Researcher, Environmental Chemistry, NILU– Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
  90. François Idczak, Direction de la Surveillance de l’Environnement, Institue Scientifique de Service Public (ISSeP), Liege, Belgium
  91. Alastair Iles, SJD, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
  92. Ellen Ingre-Khans, MSc, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  93. Alin Constantin Ionas, PhD Candidate, Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  94. Griet Jacobs, Researcher, Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Mol, Belgium
  95. Annika Jahnke, PhD, Researcher, Department of Cell Toxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany
  96. Veerle Jaspers, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  97. Allan Astrup Jensen, PhD, Research Director and CEO, Nipsect, Frederiksberg, Denmark
  98. Javier Castro Jimenez, PhD Research Scientist, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
  99. Ingrid Ericson Jogsten, PhD, Research Scientist, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  100. Elísabet Heiður Jóhannesdóttir, BA, Student, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
  101. Jon E. Johansen, Dr. Techn., Director, Chiron AS, Trondheim, Norway
  102. Niklas Johansson, Senior Consultant, Melica Biologkonsult, Upplands Väsby, Sweden
  103. Paula Johnson, Ph.D., M.P.H., Research Scientist, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA, USA
  104. Jill Johnston, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
  105. Katerina KademoglouMSc, PhD student, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Reading, UK
  106. Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece
  107. Anna Kärrman, Ph.D., Associate Professor, MTM Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  108. Naila Khalil, MBBS, MPH, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Kettering, Ohio, USA
  109. Mohamed Khelif, Ph.D., Pediatrician, Kairuoan, Tunisia
  110. Maja Kirkegaard, Ph.D., Cand.Scient., Research Advisory, Head of Chemicals Group, Worldwatch Institute Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
  111. Jana Klanova, Ph.D., Professor, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  112. Susan Klosterhaus, Ph.D., Vice President, Science and Certification, Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute, San Francisco, California, USA
  113. Candice Kollar, LEED A.P., Design Strategist, Kollar Design | EcoCreative, San Francisco, CA, USA
  114. Janna G. Koppe, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Neonatology, EKZ/AMC University of Amsterdam, Loenersloot, The Netherlands
  115. Ingjerd Sunde Krogseth, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Tromsø, Norway
  116. Petr Kukucka, Ph.D., Junior Researcher, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  117. Perihan Binnur Kurt Karakus, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey
  118. Henrik Kylin, Ph.D., Professor, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
  119. Remi Laane, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, University of Amsterdam, Deltares, Voorburg, The Netherlands
  120. Jon Sanz Landaluze, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  121. Le Thi Hai Le, Ph.D., Department Deputy Director, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Ha Noi, Vietnam
  122. Jong-Hyeon Lee, Ph.D., Director, NeoEnBiz, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.
  123. Marike Martina Leijs, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Dermatology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
  124. Xiaodong Li, Ph.D., Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
  125. Yifan Li, Ph.D., Professor, International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
  126. Ioannis LiagkoridisMSc, PhD candidate, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  127. Danuta Ligocka, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, Dept. of Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
  128. Margareta Halin Lejonklou, Ph.D., Researcher, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  129. Monica Lind, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  130. Lee Lippincott, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Allied Health Sciences, Mercer County Community College, West Windsor, New Jersey, USA
  131. Mariann Lloyd-Smith, Ph.D., Senior Advisor, National Toxics Network, East Ballina, NSW, Australia
  132. Karin Löfstrand, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  133. Rainer Lohmann, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA
  134. Donald Lucas, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, CA, USA
  135. José Vinicio Macias, Ph.D., Researcher, Autonomous University of Baja California, Baja California, Mexico
  136. Laura MacManus-SpencerPh.D., Associate Professor, Chemistry Department, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA
  137. Vic MadridMSc, Environmental Scientist, Environmental Restoration Department, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, CA, USA
  138. Karl Mair, Magister, Senior Environmental Chemist, Eco Research, Bolzano, Italy
  139. Govindan Malarvannan, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium
  140. Svetlana Malysheva, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Ghent University, Brussels, Belgium
  141. Jonathan Martin, Ph.D., Professor, Division of Analytical & Environmental Toxicology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  142. Lisa Mattioli, MSc, Scientist, Dept. of Chemistry, Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  143. Michael McLachlan, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  144. Lisa Melymuk, PhD, Junior Researcher, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  145. Annelle Mendez, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  146. Tom Muir, MS, Consultant (retired), Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
  147. Marie Danielle Mulder, PhD Student, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  148. Jochen Müller, PhD, Professor, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  149. Patricia Murphy, ND, LAc, Naturopathic Physician, Portland, Oregon, USA
  150. Angel NadalPhD, Professor, Miguel Hernandez University of Elche, Elche, Spain
  151. N.T. NairMSc, Editor, Executive Knowledge Lines monthly, Trivandrum, India
  152. Takeshi Nakano, PhD, Specially Appointed Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
  153. Amgalan Natsagdorj, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  154. Seth Newton, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Täby, Sweden
  155. Carla Ng, PhD, Senior Scientist, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  156. Bo Normander, PhD, Executive Director, Worldwatch Institute Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
  157. Kees Olie, PhD, Retired, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  158. Johanna Alkan Olsson, PhD, Lecturer, Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  159. Bindu Panikkar, PhD, Research Associate, Arctic Institute of North America, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  160. Richard Peterson, PhD, Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  161. Arianna Piersanti, PhD, Lead Chemist, Food of Environmental Control Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell-Umbria e dell Marche, Perugia, Italy
  162. Merle Plassmann, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  163. Anuschka Polder, PhD, Scientist, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway
  164. Malte Posselt, BSc, MS Student, German Federal Environment Agency, Berlin, Germany
  165. Deborah O. Raphael, Director, San Francisco Department of the Environment, San Francisco, California, USA
  166. Shay Reicher, PhD, Risk Assessment Director, Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv, Israel
  167. Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, MEng, PhD Candidate, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  168. Crystal Reul-Chen, DEnv, Senior Environmental Scientist, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California, USA
  169. Kurt RhoadsPh.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  170. David Roberts, PhD, Kenan Professor of Physics, Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
  171. Mary Roberts, PhD, Professor, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA
  172. Camilla Rodrigues, PhD, Researcher, Environmental Sanitation Technology Company, San Paulo, Brazil
  173. Ignacio Rodriguez, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher,  Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  174. Maria Ros Rodriguez, Laboratory Technician, Instituto de Química Orgánica General-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain
  175. Ott Roots, Dr sc nat ETH, Director of the Institute/Leading Research Scientist, Estonian Environmental Research Institute, Tallinn, Estonia
  176. Christine Rosen, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
  177. Anna Rotander, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Man–Technology– Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; and National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  178. Ruthann Rudel, MS, Director of Research, Silent Spring Institute, Newton, Massachusetts, USA
  179. Christina Rudén, PhD, Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  180. Elisabeth Ruffinengo, LLM, Senior advocacy & Project Officer Health and Environment, Women in Europe for a Common Future, Annemasse, France
  181. Hillol SarkarMSEE, President and CEO, Bioinformatics Department, AgO Synthesis Inc., Lake Forest, California, USA
  182. Andreas Béguin Safron, MSc, PhD Candidate, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  183. Amina Salamova, PhD, Research Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
  184. Samira Salihovic, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  185. Johanna Sandahl, MS, President, Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm, Sweden
  186. Erik Sandell, Consulting Specialist, Nab Labs Oy, Espoo, Finland
  187. Andreas Schaeffer, PhD, Institute Director, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
  188. Julia Schaletzky, PhD, Senior Group Leader, Cytokinetics, South San Francisco, California, USA
  189. Arnold Schecter, MD, MPH, Adjunct Professor, University of Louisville, Medical School, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
  190. Ted Schettler, MD, MPH, Science Director, Science and Environmental Health Network, Ames, Iowa, USA
  191. Margret Schlumpf, Dr sc nat ETH, Co-Director, Group for Reproductive, Endocrine and Environmental Toxicology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  192. Peter Schmid, PhD, Senior Scientist, Department of Organic Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  193. Lara Schultes, MSc, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  194. Erin Sedlacko, MA, Research Associate, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA
  195. Susan Shaw, PhD, Professor, School of Public Health, University at Albany– State University of New York, Albany, New York, USA; and Director, Marine Environmental Research Institute, Blue Hill, Maine, USA
  196. Omotayo Sindiku, Research Assistant, Basel Convention Coordinating Center, Ibadan, Nigeria
  197. Line Småstuen Haug, PhD, Senior Scientist, Department of Exposure and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  198. Anna Sobek, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  199. Ana Sousa, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
  200. Martin Sperl, Technician, Austria Metall AG, Ranshofen, Austria
  201. Barbara Stebbins-BoazPhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, USA
  202. Thomas Steiner, PhD, CEO, MonitoringSystems GmbH, Pressbaum, Austria
  203. Christine Steinlin, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  204. Alex Stone, ScD, Senior Chemist, Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program, Washington State Department of Ecology, Lacey, Washington, USA
  205. William Stubbings, PhD Student, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
  206. Roxana Sühring, PhD Student, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Lüneburg, Germany
  207. Kimmo Suominen, PhD, Senior Researcher, Finish Food Safety Authority, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
  208. Rebecca Sutton, PhD, Senior Scientist, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond, California, USA
  209. Joel Svedlund, BSc, Sustainability Manager, Klättermusen AB, Åre, Sweden
  210. David Szabo, PhD, Senior Scientist, Research and Development, Reynolds American, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
  211. Öner Tatli, Lab Manager, A&G Pür Analysis Laboratory, Izmir, Turkey
  212. Neeta Thacker, MSc, PhD, Former Chief Scientist and Quality Manager, Analytical Instruments Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, India
  213. Dien Nguyen Thanh, PhD Student, Environment Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  214. Joao Paulo Machado Torres, PhD, Associate Professor, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  215. Matthew Trass, PhD, Research Scientist, Phenomenex, Torrance, California, USA
  216. Theodora Tsongas, PhD, MS, Environmental Health Scientist and Consultant, Portland, Oregon, USA
  217. Mary Turyk, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  218. Anthony C. Tweedale, MS, Consultant, Rebutting Industry Science with Knowledge Consultancy, Eastpointe, Michigan, USA
  219. Shahid UllahPhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Sweden
  220. Emma Undeman, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  221. Marta Venier, PhD, Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
  222. Robin Vestergren, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Environmental Chemistry, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
  223. Stefan Voorspoels, PhD, Research Manager, Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Mol, Belgium
  224. Valerije VrcekPhD, Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
  225. Shu-Li Wang, PhD, Investigator and Professor, Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Chunan, Miaoli, Taiwan
  226. Glenys Webster, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  227. Larry Weiss, MD, Chief Marketing Officer, AOBiome, LLC, San Francisco, California, USA
  228. Philip White, Organics Analyst, Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland
  229. Karin Wiberg, PhD, Professor, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
  230. Gayle Windham, PhD, Research Scientist, Division of Environmental
and Occupational Health Control, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA
  231. Hendrik Wolschke, PhD Student, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht-Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Geesthacht, Germany
  232. Bo Yuan, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  233. Elena Zaffonato, Organics Analyst, Chelab Sri, Resana Treviso, Italy
  234. Lingyan Zhu, PhD, Professor,
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
  235. Robert Zoeller, PhD, Professor, Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA

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