The Madrid Statement

The Madrid Statement documents the scientific consensus regarding the persistence and potential for harm of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and lays out a roadmap to gather needed information and prevent further harm.
It was published in the May 2015 issue of the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

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The Madrid Statement on Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

As scientists and other professionals from a variety of disciplines, we are concerned about the production and release into the environment of an increasing number of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for the following reasons:

  1. PFASs are man-made and found everywhere. PFASs are highly persistent, as they contain perfluorinated chains that only degrade very slowly, if at all, under environmental conditions. It is documented that some polyfluorinated chemicals break down to form perfluorinated ones[1].
  2. PFASs are found in the indoor and outdoor environments, wildlife, and human tissue and bodily fluids all over the globe. They are emitted via industrial processes and military and firefighting operations[2], [3], and they migrate out of consumer products into air[4], household dust[5], food[6], [7], [8], soil[9], [10], ground and surface water, and make their way into drinking water[11], [12].
  3. In animal studies, some long-chain PFASs have been found to cause liver toxicity, disruption of lipid metabolism, the immune and endocrine systems, adverse neurobehavioral effects, neonatal toxicity and death, and tumors in multiple organ systems[13], [14]. In the growing body of epidemiological evidence, some of these effects are supported by significant or suggestive associations between specific long-chain PFASs and adverse outcomes, including associations with testicular and kidney cancers[15], [16], liver malfunction[17], hypothyroidism[18], high cholesterol[19], [20], ulcerative colitis[21], lower birth weight and size[22], obesity[23], decreased immune response to vaccines[24], and reduced hormone levels and delayed puberty[25].
  4. Due to their high persistence, global distribution, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity, some PFASs have been listed under the Stockholm Convention[26] as persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
  5. As documented in the Helsingør Statement[27],
    • Although some of the long-chain PFASs are being regulated or phased out, the most common replacements are short-chain PFASs with similar structures, or compounds with fluorinated segments joined by ether linkages.
    • While some shorter-chain fluorinated alternatives seem to be less bioaccumulative, they are still as environmentally persistent as long-chain substances or have persistent degradation products. Thus, a switch to short-chain and other fluorinated alternatives may not reduce the amounts of PFASs in the environment. In addition, because some of the shorter-chain PFASs are less effective, larger quantities may be needed to provide the same performance.
    • While many fluorinated alternatives are being marketed, little information is publicly available on their chemical structures, properties, uses, and toxicological profiles.
    • Increasing use of fluorinated alternatives will lead to increasing levels of stable perfluorinated degradation products in the environment, and possibly also in biota and humans. This would increase the risks of adverse effects on human health and the environment.
  6. Initial efforts to estimate the overall emissions of PFASs into the environment have been limited due to uncertainties related to product formulations, quantities of production, production locations, efficiency of emission controls, and long-term trends in production history[28].
  7. The technical capacity to destroy PFASs is currently insufficient in many parts of the world.

Global action through the Montreal Protocol[29] successfully reduced the use of the highly persistent ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), thus allowing for the recovery of the ozone layer. However, many of the organofluorine replacements for CFCs are still of concern due to their high global warming potential. It is essential to learn from such past efforts and take measures at the international level to reduce the use of PFASs in products and prevent their replacement with fluorinated alternatives in order to avoid long-term harm to human health and the environment.

For these reasons, we call on the international community to cooperate in limiting the production and use of PFASs and in developing safer non-fluorinated alternatives. We therefore urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers to take the following actions:

A. Scientists:

  1. Assemble, in collaboration with industry and governments, a global inventory of all PFASs in use or in the environment, including precursors and degradation products, their functionality, properties, and toxicology.
  2. Develop analytical methods for the identification and quantification of additional families of PFASs, including fluorinated alternatives.
  3. Continue monitoring for legacy PFASs in different matrices and for environmental reservoirs of PFASs.
  4. Continue investigating the mechanisms of toxicity and exposure (e.g., sources, fate, transport, and bioaccumulation of PFASs), and improve methods for testing the safety of alternatives.
  5. Bring research results to the attention of policy makers, industry, the media, and the public.

B. Governments:

  1. Enact legislation to require only essential uses of PFASs and enforce labeling to indicate uses.
  2. Require manufacturers of PFASs to
    • conduct more extensive toxicological testing,
    • make chemical structures public,
    • provide validated analytical methods for detection of PFASs, and
    • assume extended producer responsibility and implement safe disposal of products and stockpiles containing PFASs.
  3. Work with industry to develop public registries of products containing PFASs.
  4. Make public annual statistical data on production, imports, and exports of PFASs.
  5. Whenever possible, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs in government procurement.
  6. In collaboration with industry, ensure that an infrastructure is in place to safely transport, dispose of, and destroy PFASs and PFAS-containing products, and enforce these measures.

C. Chemical manufacturers:

  1. Make data on PFASs publicly available, including chemical structures, properties, and toxicology.
  2. Provide scientists with standard samples of PFAS, including precursors and degradation products, to enable environmental monitoring of PFASs.
  3. Provide the supply chain with documentation on PFASs content and safe disposal guidelines.
  4. Work with scientists and governments to develop safe disposal methods for PFASs.
  5. Develop nonfluorinated alternatives that are neither persistent nor toxic.

D. Product manufacturers and other professional users:

  1. Stop using PFASs where they are not essential or when safer alternatives exist.
  2. Develop inexpensive and sensitive PFAS quantification methods for compliance testing.
  3. Label products containing PFASs, including chemical identity and disposal guidelines.
  4. Invest in the development and use of nonfluorinated alternatives.

 E. Purchasing organizations, retailers, and individual consumers:

  1. Whenever possible, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs. These include many products that are stain-resistant, waterproof, or non-stick.
  2. Question the use of such fluorinated “performance” chemicals added to consumer products.

 

References

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[2] Darwin RL. 2011. Estimated inventory of PFOS-based aqueous film forming foam (AFFF). Arlington, VA:Fire Fighter Fighting Foam Coalition. Available: http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/POPsReviewCommittee/Meetings/POPRC7/POPRC7Followup/Requestsforinformation/RequestsforcommentsbyPOPRC7IWGs/CommentsonPFOSinopenapplications/tabid/2746/ctl/Download/mid/8994/Default.aspx?id=12&ObjID=14391 [accessed 6 April 2015].
[3] Fire Fighting Foam Coalition. 2014. Fact Sheet on AFFF Fire Fighting Agents. Arlington, VA: Fire Firghting Foam Coalition. Available: http://www.fffc.org/images/AFFFfactsheet14.pdf [accessed 6 April 2015].
[4] Shoeib M, Harner T, Webster GM, Lee SC. 2011. Indoor sources of poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCS) in Vancouver, Canada: Implications for human exposure. Environ Sci Technol 45(19):7999-8005; doi:10.1021/es103562v.
[5] Björklund JA, Thuresson K, de Wit CA. 2009. Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust: concentrations, human exposure estimates, and sources. Environ Sci Technol 43(7):2276-2281; doi:10.1021/es803201a.
[6] Begley TH, Hsu W, Noonan G, Diachenko G. 2008. Migration of fluorochemical-paper additives from food-contact paper into foods and food simulants. Food Addit Contam Part A 25(3):384-390; doi:10.1080/02652030701513784.
[7] Trier X, Granby K, Christensen JH. 2011. Polyfluorinated surfactants (PFS) in paper and board coatings for food packaging. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 18(7):1108-1120; doi:10.1007/s11356-010-0439-3.
[8] Tittlemier SA, Pepper K, Seymour C, Moisey J, Bronson, R, Cao XL, et al. 2007. Dietary exposure of Canadians to perfluorinated carboxylates and perfluorooctane sulfonate via consumption of meat, fish, fast foods, and food items prepared in their packaging. J Agric Food Chem 55(8):3203-3210; doi:10.1021/jf0634045.
[9] Strynar MJ, Lindstrom AB, Nakayama SF, Egeghy PP, Helfant LJ. 2012. Pilot scale application of a method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in surface soils. Chemosphere 86(3):252-257; doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.09.036.
[10] Sepulvado JG, Blaine AC, Hundal LS, Higgins CP. 2011. Occurrence and fate of perfluorochemicals in soil following the land application of municipal biosolids. Environ Sci Technol 45(19):8106-8112.
[11] Rahman MF, Peldszus S, Anderson WB. Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: A review. Water Res 50:318-340; doi:10.1016/j.watres.2013.10.045.
[12] Eschauzier C, Beerendonk E, Scholte-Veenendaal P, De Vogt P. 2012. Impact of treatment processes on the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in the drinking water production chain. Environ Sci Technol 46(3):1708-1715; doi:10.1021/es201662b.
[13] Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J. 2007. Perfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring & toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99(2):366-394.
[14] Post GB, Cohn PD, Cooper KR. 2012. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an emerging drinking water contaminant: A critical review of recent literature. Environ Res 116:93-117; doi:10.1016/j.envres.2012.03.007.
[15] Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Lauby-Secretan B, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, Ghissassi FE, et al. 2014. Carcinogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid, tetrafluoroethylene, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,3-propane sultone. Lancet Oncol 15(9):924-925; doi:10.1016/ S1470-2045(14)70316-X.
[16] Barry V, Winquist A, Steenland K. 2013. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposures and incident cancers among adults living near a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect 121(11-12):1313–1318; doi:10.1289/ehp.1306615.
[17] Gallo V, Leonardi G, Genser B, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Frisbee SJ, Karlsson L, et al. 2012. Serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations and liver function biomarkers in a population with elevated PFOA exposure. Environ Health Perspect 120(5):655-660; doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104436.
[18] Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Mondal D, Armstrong B, Bloom MS, Fletcher T. 2012. Thyroid function and perfluoroalkyl acids in children living near a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect 120(7):1036-1041; doi:10.1289/es1104370.
[19] Fitz-Simon N, Fletcher T, Luster MI, Steenland K, Calafat AM, Kato K, et al. 2013. Reductions in serum lipids with a 4-year decline in serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Epidemiology 24(4):569-576.
[20] Nelson JW, Hatch EE, Webster TF. 2010. Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and cholesterol, body weight, and insulin resistance in the general U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect 118(2):197-202.
[21] Steenland K, Zhao L, Winquist A, Parks C. 2013. Ulcerative colitis and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a highly exposed population of community residents and workers in the Mid-Ohio Valley. Environ Health Perspect 121(8):900-905; doi:10.1289/ehp.1206449.
[22] Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. 2007. Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 115(11):1677-1682; doi:10.1289/ehp.10506.
[23] Halldorsson TI, Rytter D, Haug LS, Bech BH, Danielsen I, Becher G, et al. 2012. Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate and risk of overweight at 20 years of age: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 120(5):668-673; doi:10.1289/ehp.1104034.
[24] Grandjean P, Andersen EW, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Nielsen F, Mølbak K, Weihe P, et al. 2012. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds. J American Med Assoc 307(4): 391-397; doi:10.1001/jama.2011.2034.
[25] Lopez-Espinosa M, Fletcher T, Armstrong B, Genser B, Dhatariya K, Mondal D, et al. 2011. Association of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) with age of puberty among children living near a chemical plant. Environ Sci Technol 45(19):8160-8166; doi:10.1021/es1038694.
[26] United Nations Environment Programme. 2009. The new POPs under the Stockholm Convention. Châtelaine, Switzerland: Stockholm Convention, United Nations Environment Programme. Available: http://chm.pops.int/Implementation/NewPOPs/TheNewPOPs/tabid/672/Default.aspx [accessed 6 April 2015].
[27] Scheringer M, Trier X, Cousins IT, de Voogt P, Fletcher T, Wang Z, et al. 2014. Helsingør Statement on poly- & perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). Chemosphere 114: 337-339; doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.044.
[28] Wang Z, Cousins IT, Scheringer M, Buck RC, Hungerbühler K. 2014. Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: the remaining pieces of the puzzle. Environ Int 69:166-176; doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.006.
[29] United Nations Environment Programme. 2012. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Nairobi, Kenya:Montreal Protocol, United Nations Environment Programme. Available: http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/Treaties/treaties_decisions-hb.php?sec_id=5 [accessed 6 April 2015].

 

Sign the Madrid Statement

Please fill out the form below to sign the Madrid Statement on per- and polyfluorinated chemicals.
The names of all new sign-ons will be posted as an appendix to the published Madrid Statement on this and other websites.

Authors and Signatories

This statement is authored and signed by the individual scientists and other professionals listed separately below. Please note that the views are those of the authors and signatories; institutional affiliations are provided for identification purposes only.

Authors

  1. Arlene Blum, Ph.D., Visiting Scholar, Dept. of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; Executive Director, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
  2. Simona A. Balan, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
  3. Martin Scheringer, PD Dr., Senior Scientist, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  4. Gretta Goldenman, President, European Centre on Sustainable Policies for Human and Environmental Rights (ECOSPHERE), Brussels, Belgium
  5. Xenia Trier, MSc, Ph.D., Research Chemist, Division of Food Chemistry, DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
  6. Ian Cousins, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  7. Miriam Diamond, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  8. Tony Fletcher, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  9. Christopher Higgins, PhD, Associate Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA
  10. Avery E. Lindeman, MSc, Deputy Director, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
  11. Graham Peaslee, Ph.D., Hartgerink Professor of Chemistry, Chemistry Department, Hope College, Holland, MI, USA
  12. Pim de Voogt, Ph.D., Professor, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  13. Zhanyun Wang, Dr. sc., Postdoctoral Fellow, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  14. Roland Weber, Ph.D., Chemist, Environmental Consultant, POPs Environmental Consulting, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany

Signatories

  1. Ovokeroye Abafe, Researcher, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  2. Guillaume Ageorges, Santé Environnement Rhône-Alpes, Chaponost, France
  3. Marlene Ågerstrand, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  4. Lutz Ahrens, PhD, Research Scientist, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
  5. Laura Anderko, PhD, Professor, Health Systems and Policy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
  6. David Andrews, PhD, Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC, USA
  7. Beatriz H. Aristizabal, PhD, Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia, Manizales, Colombia
  8. Abel Arkenbout, PhD, Chairman, ToxicoWatch Foundation, Harlingen, the Netherlands
  9. Misha Askren, MD, Physician, Urgent Care, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, California, USA
  10. Jannicke Bakkejord, Senior Engineer, National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway
  11. Julia Bangerter, MA, Junior Campaigner, Greenpeace, Rapperswil-Jona, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
  12. Jia Bao, PhD, Assistant Professor, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.
  13. Andrea Barbarossa, DVM, PhD, Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell’Emilia, Italy
  14. Georg Becher, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Exposure and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  15. Thea Bechshoft, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
  16. Peter Behnisch, PhD, Director, BioDetection System, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  17. Susanne Bejerot, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  18. Stephen Bent, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
  19. Urs Berger, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  20. Åke Bergman, PhD, Executive Director and Professor, Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden
  21. Vladimir Beškoski, PhD, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  22. Emmanuelle Bichon, Scientific and Technical Support Manager, Oniris, Nantes-Atlantic College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering, Nantes, France
  23. Heather Bischel, PhD, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland
  24. Filip Bjurlid, PhD Student, Man– Technology–Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  25. Tara Blank, PhD, Consultant, Elixir Environmental, Ridgefield, Connecticut, USA
  26. Daniel Borg, PhD, Toxicology Consultant, Trossa AB, Stockholm, Sweden
  27. Katrine Borga, PhD, Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  28. Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, PhD, Professor, Department of Health and Environment, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
  29. Hindrik Bouwman, PhD, Lecturer, Zoology Group, North-West University, Mahikeng, South Africa
  30. Lindsay Bramwell, MSc, Research Associate, Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
  31. Knut Breivik, PhD, Senior Scientist and Professor, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
  32. Katja Broeg, PhD, Researcher, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  33. Phil Brown, PhD, University Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Health Sciences, and Director, Social Science Environmental Health Research Institute, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  34. Thomas Bruton, MS, PhD Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
  35. Laura Cabrera, PhD, National Core for Neuroethics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
  36. David Camann, MS, Technical Advisor, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, USA
  37. Louise Camenzuli, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  38. Elina CarblomBachelor in Nutrition, Owner, Rätten att veta, Borlänge, Sweden
  39. Argelia Castaño, PhD, Head of Department, Area of Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain
  40. Carmela Centeno, Industrial Development Officer, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna, Austria
  41. Ibrahim Chahoud, PhD, Professor, Department of Toxicology, Charité– Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  42. Kai Hsien Chi, PhD, Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
  43. Eliza Chin, MD, MPH, Executive Director, American Medical Women’s Association, Reston, Virginia, USA
  44. Carsten Christophersen, PhD, Adjunct Professor, Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
  45. Theo Colborn (1927–2014), PhD, President Emeritus, TEDX (The Endocrine Disruption Exchange), Paonia, Colorado, USA
  46. Terrence J. Collins, PhD, Teresa
Heinz Professor of Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; and Director, Institute for Green Science, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  47. Johanna Congleton, MSPH, PhD, Senior Scientist, Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC, US
  48. Paul Connett, Ph.D., Director, Fluoride Action Network, Binghamton, New York USA
  49. Adrian Covaci, PhD, Professor, Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  50. Craig Criddle, PhD, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
  51. Alicia Culver, BS, Responsible Purchasing Network, Lafayette, CA, United States
  52. Oscar H. Fernández Cubero, Technician, National Food Center, Majadahonda, Spain
  53. Jordi Dachs, PhD, Research Scientist, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
  54. Patricia DeMarco, Ph.D., Researcher and Writer, Chemistry Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  55. Matthias De Beenhouwer, PhD, University of Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium
  56. Cynthia de Wit, PhD, Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  57. Barbara Demeneix, PhD, DSc, Professor, Department RDDM, National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France
  58. Pascal Diefenbacher, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  59. Michelle Douskey, PhD, Chemistry Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
  60. Timothy Elgren, PhD, Dean of Arts and Sciences, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, USA
  61. David Epel, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California, USA
  62. Ulrika Eriksson, PhD Student, Man– Technology–Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  63. Alexi Ernstoff, MS, PhD Student, Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
  64. Igor Eulaers, PhD Student, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  65. Heesoo Eun, PhD, Senior Researcher, Division of Organochemicals, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan
  66. Peter Fantke, PhD, Assistant Professor, Quantitative Sustainability Assessment Division, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
  67. Marko Filipovic, FilLic, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  68. Marie Frederiksen, Researcher, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, ­Denmark
  69. Carey Friedman, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  70. Barak GaleDoctor of Optometry, Retired, Self Employed, Seattle, Washington, USA
  71. Frederic Gallo, PhD, Senior Expert, Regional Activity Center for Sustainable Consumption and Production, Barcelona, Spain
  72. Diego Garcia-Bellido, PhD, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
  73. Joseph A. Gardella, Jr, PhD, Distinguished Professor and John and Frances Larkin Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Buffalo–The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
  74. Stephen Gardner, DVM, Veterinarian, Albany Animal Hospital, Richmond, California, USA
  75. Caroline Gaus, PhD, Professor, National Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  76. Wouter Gebbink, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  77. David Gee, PhD, Associate Fellow, Institute of Environment, Health, and Societies, Brunel University, Brunel, United Kingdom
  78. Kouadio Kouame Georges, PhD, Ministry of Environment, Urban Sanitation and Sustainable Development, Abidjan, Ivory Coast
  79. Philip Germansdefer, DHC Che, MS ChE, Director of International Sales and Marketing, Fluid Management Systems, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, USA
  80. Bondi Nxuma Gevao, PhD, Research Scientist, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait
  81. Steven Gilbert, PhD, Institute of Neurotoxicology and Neurological Disorders, Seattle, WA, USA
  82. Melissa Gomis, MS, PhD Student, Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  83. Belen Gonzalez, PhD Student, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
  84. Peter Gringinger, MSc, Principal, Cardno, Sassafras, Victoria, Australia
  85. Adam Grochowalski, PhD, Professor, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krakow University of Technology, Krakow, Poland
  86. Ramon Guardans, Scientific Advisor, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Madrid, Spain
  87. Alexey Gusev, PhD, Senior Scientist, European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Meteorological Synthesizing Centre–East, Moscow, Russia
  88. Arno Gutleb, PhD, Project Leader, Department of Environment and Agro- Biotechnologies, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Belvaux, Luxembourg
  89. Emre Gücdemir, Sales and App. Specialist, Tetra Technological Systems
  90. Tenzing Gyalpo, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  91. Johannes Hädrich, PhD, Head, Research Laboratory, European Union Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, Freiburg, Germany
  92. Helen Håkansson, PhD, Professor of Toxicology and Chemicals Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  93. Rolf HaldenPhD, Professor & Director, Center for Environmental Security, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA
  94. Tomas Hansson, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  95. Mikael Harju, PhD, Senior Scientist, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
  96. Stuart Harrad, PhD, Professor of Environmental Chemistry, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
  97. Bernhard Hennig, PhD, Professor of Nutrition and Toxicology, and Director, University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
  98. Marcus HewitsonMBBS BSc(Med), Doctor of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, ACNEM, Ocean Shores, Australia.
  99. Eunha Hoh, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
  100. Sandra Huber, PhD, Senior Researcher, Environmental Chemistry, NILU– Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
  101. François Idczak, Direction de la Surveillance de l’Environnement, Institue Scientifique de Service Public (ISSeP), Liege, Belgium
  102. Alastair Iles, SJD, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
  103. Ellen Ingre-Khans, MSc, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  104. Alin Constantin Ionas, PhD Candidate, Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  105. Griet Jacobs, Researcher, Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Mol, Belgium
  106. Annika Jahnke, PhD, Researcher, Department of Cell Toxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany
  107. Veerle Jaspers, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  108. Allan Astrup Jensen, PhD, Research Director and CEO, Nipsect, Frederiksberg, Denmark
  109. Javier Castro Jimenez, PhD Research Scientist, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
  110. Ingrid Ericson Jogsten, PhD, Research Scientist, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  111. Elísabet Heiður Jóhannesdóttir, BA, Student, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
  112. Jon E. Johansen, Dr. Techn., Director, Chiron AS, Trondheim, Norway
  113. Niklas Johansson, Senior Consultant, Melica Biologkonsult, Upplands Väsby, Sweden
  114. Paula Johnson, Ph.D., M.P.H., Research Scientist, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA, USA
  115. Jill Johnston, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
  116. Katerina KademoglouMSc, PhD student, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Reading, UK
  117. Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece
  118. Anna Kärrman, Ph.D., Associate Professor, MTM Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  119. Naila Khalil, MBBS, MPH, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Kettering, Ohio, USA
  120. Mohamed Khelif, Ph.D., Pediatrician, Kairuoan, Tunisia
  121. Maja Kirkegaard, Ph.D., Cand.Scient., Research Advisory, Head of Chemicals Group, Worldwatch Institute Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
  122. Jana Klanova, Ph.D., Professor, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  123. Susan Klosterhaus, PhD, Vice President, Science and Certification, Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute, San Francisco, California, USA
  124. Stephan Köhler, PhD, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
  125. Candice Kollar, LEED A.P., Design Strategist, Kollar Design | EcoCreative, San Francisco, CA, USA
  126. Janna G. Koppe, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Neonatology, EKZ/AMC University of Amsterdam, Loenersloot, The Netherlands
  127. Ingjerd Sunde Krogseth, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Tromsø, Norway
  128. Kristian Kruse, MS, Ecolabelling Norway, Oslo, Norway
  129. Petr Kukucka, Ph.D., Junior Researcher, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  130. Perihan Binnur Kurt Karakus, PhD, Associate Professor, Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey
  131. Henrik Kylin, PhD, Professor, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
  132. Remi Laane, PhD, Professor, Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, University of Amsterdam, Deltares, Voorburg, The Netherlands
  133. Jon Sanz Landaluze, PhD, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  134. Le Thi Hai Le, PhD, Department Deputy Director, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Ha Noi, Vietnam
  135. Jong-Hyeon Lee, PhD, Director, NeoEnBiz, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.
  136. Marike Martina Leijs, PhD, Professor, Dept. of Dermatology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
  137. Xiaodong Li, PhD, Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
  138. Yifan Li, PhD, Professor, International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
  139. Ioannis LiagkoridisMSc, PhD candidate, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  140. Danuta Ligocka, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, Dept. of Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
  141. Margareta Halin Lejonklou, Ph.D., Researcher, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  142. Monica Lind, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  143. Lee Lippincott, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Allied Health Sciences, Mercer County Community College, West Windsor, New Jersey, USA
  144. Mariann Lloyd-Smith, Ph.D., Senior Advisor, National Toxics Network, East Ballina, NSW, Australia
  145. Karin Löfstrand, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  146. Rainer Lohmann, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA
  147. Donald Lucas, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, CA, USA
  148. José Vinicio Macias, Ph.D., Researcher, Autonomous University of Baja California, Baja California, Mexico
  149. Laura MacManus-SpencerPh.D., Associate Professor, Chemistry Department, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA
  150. Vic MadridMSc, Environmental Scientist, Environmental Restoration Department, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, CA, USA
  151. Karl Mair, Magister, Senior Environmental Chemist, Eco Research, Bolzano, Italy
  152. Govindan Malarvannan, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium
  153. Svetlana Malysheva, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Ghent University, Brussels, Belgium
  154. Jonathan Martin, Ph.D., Professor, Division of Analytical & Environmental Toxicology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  155. Lisa Mattioli, MSc, Scientist, Dept. of Chemistry, Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  156. Michael McLachlan, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  157. Lisa Melymuk, PhD, Junior Researcher, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  158. Annelle Mendez, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  159. Tom Muir, MS, Consultant (retired), Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
  160. Marie Danielle Mulder, PhD Student, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  161. Jochen Müller, PhD, Professor, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  162. Patricia Murphy, ND, LAc, Naturopathic Physician, Portland, Oregon, USA
  163. Angel NadalPhD, Professor, Miguel Hernandez University of Elche, Elche, Spain
  164. Takeshi Nakano, PhD, Specially Appointed Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
  165. Amgalan Natsagdorj, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  166. Seth Newton, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Täby, Sweden
  167. Carla Ng, PhD, Senior Scientist, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  168. Ullhas Nimkar, MSc, NimkarTek Technical Services Pvt Ltd, Thane, India
  169. Bo Normander, PhD, Executive Director, Worldwatch Institute Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
  170. Kees Olie, PhD, Retired, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  171. Britton Ranson Olson, PhD, Lake Superior State University, Sault Ste. Marie, USA
  172. Johanna Alkan Olsson, PhD, Lecturer, Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  173. Bindu Panikkar, PhD, Research Associate, Arctic Institute of North America, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  174. Richard Peterson, PhD, Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  175. Arianna Piersanti, PhD, Lead Chemist, Food of Environmental Control Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell-Umbria e dell Marche, Perugia, Italy
  176. Merle Plassmann, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  177. Anuschka Polder, PhD, Scientist, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway
  178. Deborah O. Raphael, Director, San Francisco Department of the Environment, San Francisco, California, USA
  179. Shay Reicher, PhD, Risk Assessment Director, Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv, Israel
  180. Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, MEng, PhD Candidate, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  181. Crystal Reul-Chen, DEnv, Senior Environmental Scientist, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California, USA
  182. Kurt RhoadsPh.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  183. David Roberts, PhD, Kenan Professor of Physics, Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
  184. Mary Roberts, PhD, Professor, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA
  185. Camilla Rodrigues, PhD, Researcher, Environmental Sanitation Technology Company, San Paulo, Brazil
  186. Ignacio Rodriguez, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher,  Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  187. Maria Ros Rodriguez, Laboratory Technician, Instituto de Química Orgánica General-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain
  188. Ott Roots, Dr sc nat ETH, Director of the Institute/Leading Research Scientist, Estonian Environmental Research Institute, Tallinn, Estonia
  189. Christine Rosen, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
  190. Ian Ross, PhD, ARCADIS, Manchester, UK
  191. Anna Rotander, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Man–Technology– Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; and National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  192. Ruthann Rudel, MS, Director of Research, Silent Spring Institute, Newton, Massachusetts, USA
  193. Christina Rudén, PhD, Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  194. Elisabeth Ruffinengo, LLM, Senior advocacy & Project Officer Health and Environment, Women in Europe for a Common Future, Annemasse, France
  195. Hillol SarkarMSEE, President and CEO, Bioinformatics Department, AgO Synthesis Inc., Lake Forest, California, USA
  196. Andreas Béguin Safron, MSc, PhD Candidate, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  197. Amina Salamova, PhD, Research Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
  198. Samira Salihovic, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  199. Johanna Sandahl, MS, President, Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm, Sweden
  200. Erik Sandell, Consulting Specialist, Nab Labs Oy, Espoo, Finland
  201. Andreas Schaeffer, PhD, Institute Director, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
  202. Julia Schaletzky, PhD, Senior Group Leader, Cytokinetics, South San Francisco, California, USA
  203. Arnold Schecter, MD, MPH, Adjunct Professor, University of Louisville, Medical School, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
  204. Ted Schettler, MD, MPH, Science Director, Science and Environmental Health Network, Ames, Iowa, USA
  205. Margret Schlumpf, Dr sc nat ETH, Co-Director, Group for Reproductive, Endocrine and Environmental Toxicology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  206. Peter Schmid, PhD, Senior Scientist, Department of Organic Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  207. Lara Schultes, MSc, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  208. Meg Sears, PhD, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Canada
  209. Erin Sedlacko, MA, Research Associate, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA
  210. Susan Shaw, PhD, Professor, School of Public Health, University at Albany– State University of New York, Albany, New York, USA; and Director, Marine Environmental Research Institute, Blue Hill, Maine, USA
  211. Omotayo Sindiku, Research Assistant, Basel Convention Coordinating Center, Ibadan, Nigeria
  212. Line Småstuen Haug, PhD, Senior Scientist, Department of Exposure and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  213. Anna Sobek, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  214. Ana Sousa, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
  215. Martin Sperl, Technician, Austria Metall AG, Ranshofen, Austria
  216. Barbara Stebbins-BoazPhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, USA
  217. Thomas Steiner, PhD, CEO, MonitoringSystems GmbH, Pressbaum, Austria
  218. Christine Steinlin, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  219. Alex Stone, ScD, Senior Chemist, Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program, Washington State Department of Ecology, Lacey, Washington, USA
  220. William Stubbings, PhD Student, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
  221. Roxana Sühring, PhD Student, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Lüneburg, Germany
  222. Kimmo Suominen, PhD, Senior Researcher, Finish Food Safety Authority, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
  223. Rebecca Sutton, PhD, Senior Scientist, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond, California, USA
  224. Joel Svedlund, BSc, Sustainability Manager, Klättermusen AB, Åre, Sweden
  225. David Szabo, PhD, Senior Scientist, Research and Development, Reynolds American, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
  226. Öner Tatli, Lab Manager, A&G Pür Analysis Laboratory, Izmir, Turkey
  227. Neeta Thacker, MSc, PhD, Former Chief Scientist and Quality Manager, Analytical Instruments Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, India
  228. Dien Nguyen Thanh, PhD Student, Environment Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  229. Joao Paulo Machado Torres, PhD, Associate Professor, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  230. Matthew Trass, PhD, Research Scientist, Phenomenex, Torrance, California, USA
  231. Theodora Tsongas, PhD, MS, Environmental Health Scientist and Consultant, Portland, Oregon, USA
  232. Mary Turyk, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  233. Anthony C. Tweedale, MS, Consultant, Rebutting Industry Science with Knowledge Consultancy, Eastpointe, Michigan, USA
  234. Shahid UllahPhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Sweden
  235. Emma Undeman, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  236. Marta Venier, PhD, Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
  237. Robin Vestergren, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Environmental Chemistry, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
  238. Stefan Voorspoels, PhD, Research Manager, Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Mol, Belgium
  239. Valerije VrcekPhD, Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
  240. Shu-Li Wang, PhD, Investigator and Professor, Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Chunan, Miaoli, Taiwan
  241. David Warhurst, PhD, DSc, Professor Emeritus, LSHTM, London, UK
  242. Glenys Webster, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  243. Larry Weiss, MD, Chief Marketing Officer, AOBiome, LLC, San Francisco, California, USA
  244. Philip White, Organics Analyst, Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland
  245. Karin Wiberg, PhD, Professor, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
  246. Gayle Windham, PhD, Research Scientist, Division of Environmental
and Occupational Health Control, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA
  247. Hendrik Wolschke, PhD Student, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht-Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Geesthacht, Germany
  248. Stephen Wright, Integratect International LLC, Miramar Beach, USA
  249. Bo Yuan, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  250. Elena Zaffonato, Organics Analyst, Chelab Sri, Resana Treviso, Italy
  251. Lingyan Zhu, PhD, Professor,
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
  252. Robert Zoeller, PhD, Professor, Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA

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