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San Antonio Statement

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The San Antonio Statement documents the scientific consensus about health, environmental and fire safety concerns associated with the use of halogenated flame retardants.

Introduction

The San Antonio Statement on Brominated and Chlorinated Flame Retardants was first presented at the 30th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (Dioxin 2010), September 2010 in San Antonio, Texas, USA.

This consensus statement has over 200 signatories from 30 countries, representing expertise on health, environment and fire safety. The statement was published in Environmental Health Perspectives, December 2010.

The statement is a joint project of the International Panel on Chemical Pollution (IPCP), International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN), and Green Science Policy Institute.

The San Antonio Statement on Brominated and Chlorinated Flame Retardants

Read the statement in Environmental Health Perspectives

Authors: Joseph DiGangi1, Arlene Blum2,3, Åke Bergman4, Cynthia A. de Wit5, Donald Lucas6, David Mortimer7, Arnold Schecter8, Martin Scheringer9, Susan D. Shaw10, Thomas F. Webster11

1 International POPs Elimination Network, Berkeley, California, USA, 2 Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA, 3 Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, California, USA, 4 Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, and, 5 Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 6 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, 7 Food Standards Agency, London, United Kingdom, 8 University of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas, Texas, USA, 9 Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland, 10 Marine Environmental Research Institute, Center for Marine Studies, Blue Hill, Maine, USA, 11 Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.

We, scientists from a variety of disciplines, declare the following:

  1. Parties to the Stockholm Convention have taken action on three brominated flame retardants that have been listed in the treaty for global elimination. These substances include components of commercial penta-bromodiphenyl ether and commercial octa-bromodiphenyl ether, along with hexabromobiphenyl. Another brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane, is under evaluation.
  2. Many commonly used brominated and chlorinated flame retardants 
can undergo long-range environmental transport.
  3. Many brominated and chlorinated flame retardants appear to be persistent and bioaccumulative, resulting in food chain contamination, including human milk.
  4. Many brominated and chlorinated flame retardants lack adequate toxicity information, but the available data raises concerns.
  5. Many different types of brominated and chlorinated flame retardants have been incorporated into products even though comprehensive toxicological information is lacking.
  6. Brominated and chlorinated flame retardants present in a variety of products are released to the indoor and outdoor environments.
  7. Near-end-of-life and end-of-life electrical and electronic products are a growing concern as a result of dumping in developing countries, which results in the illegal transboundary movement of their hazardous constituents. These include brominated and chlorinated flame retardants.
  8. There is a lack of capacity to handle electronic waste in an environ-mentally sound manner in almost all developing countries and countries with economies in transition, leading to the release of hazardous substances that cause harm to human health and the environment. These substances include brominated and chlorinated flame retardants.
  9. Brominated and chlorinated flame retardants can increase fire toxicity, but their overall benefit in improving fire safety has not been proven.
  10. When brominated and chlorinated flame retardants burn, highly toxic dioxins and furans are formed.
    Therefore, these data support the following:
  11. Brominated and chlorinated flame retardants as classes of 
substances are a concern for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport, and toxicity.
  12. There is a need to improve the availability of and access to information on brominated and chlorinated flame retardants and other chemicals in products in the supply chain and throughout each product’s life cycle.
  13. Consumers can play a role in the adoption of alternatives to harmful flame retardants if they are made aware of the presence of the substances, for example, through product labeling.
  14. The process of identifying alternatives to flame retardants should include not only alternative chemicals but also innovative changes in the design of products, industrial processes, and other practices that do not require the use of any flame retardant.
  15. Efforts should be made to ensure that current and alternative chemical flame retardants do not have hazardous properties, such as mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, or adverse effects on the reproductive, developmental, endocrine, immune, or nervous systems.
  16. When seeking exemptions for certain applications of flame retardants, the party requesting the exemption should supply some information indicating why the exemption is technically or scien-tifically necessary and why potential alternatives are not technically or scientifically viable; a description of potential alternative processes, products, materials, or systems that eliminate the need for the chemical; and a list of sources researched.
  17. Wastes containing flame retardants with persistent organic pollutant (POP) characteristics, including products and articles, should be disposed of in such a way that the POP content is destroyed or irreversibly transformed so that they do not exhibit the charac-teristics of POPs.
  18. Flame retardants with POP characteristics should not be permitted to be subjected to disposal operations that may lead to recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct reuse, or alternative uses of the substances.
  19. Wastes containing flame retardants with POP properties should not be transported across international boundaries unless it is for disposal in such a way that the POP content is destroyed or 
irreversibly transformed.
  20. It is important to consider product stewardship and extended 
producer responsibility aspects in the life-cycle management of products containing flame retardants with POP properties, including electronic and electrical products.

Resources

Signatories

  1. Sam Adu-Kumi, M.S., Deputy Director, Environmental Protection Agency, Accra, Ghana
  2. Björn Albinson, Fire Protection Engineer (retired), Karlstad, Sweden
  3. Henrik Alm, M.S., Doctoral Student, Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  4. Misha Askren, M.D., F.A.A.F.P., Physician, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Pasadena, CA, USA
  5. Ralph Baker, M.S., Ph.D., Chief Scientist, TerraTherm Inc., Fitchburg, MA, USA
  6. John Balmes, M.D., Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA, and Professor of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  7. Scott Bartell, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
  8. Georg Becher, Ph.D., Department Director and Professor, Analytical Chemistry, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  9. David C. Bellinger, Ph.D., Professor, Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
  10. Stephen Bent, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine, Psychiatry, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
  11. Åke Bergman, Ph.D., Professor, Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, and Board Member, International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Zürich, Switzerland
  12. Anders Bignert, Ph.D., Professor, Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
  13. Justina Björklund, M.S., Graduate Student, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  14. Arlene Blum, Ph.D., Visiting Scholar, Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  15. Christian Bogdal, Ph.D., Researcher, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland
  16. Phil Brown, Ph.D., Professor, Sociology and Environmental Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
  17. David Camann, M.S., Staff Scientist, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA
  18. Carmela Centeno, M.S., Ph.D., Industrial Development Officer, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna, Austria
  19. Ibrahim Chahoud, Ph.D., Professor of Reproductive Toxicology, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  20. Eliza Chin, M.D., M.P.H., President, American Medical Women’s Association, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  21. Brock Chittim, M.S., General Manager, Wellington Laboratories, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
  22. Carsten Christophersen, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  23. Bradley Clarke, Ph.D., Research Fellow, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
  24. Theo Colborn, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  25. Kathleen Collins, Ph.D., Professor, Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  26. Terrence Collins, Ph.D., Teresa Heinz Professor of Green Chemistry and Director of the Institute for Green Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
  27. Adrian Covaci, Ph.D., Professor, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  28. Craig Criddle, Ph.D., Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
  29. Margarita Curras-Collazo, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA
  30. Kyle D’Silva, Ph.D., Product Manager, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Dreieich, Germany
  31. Devra Davis, M.A., Ph.D., M.P.H, Visiting Professor, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA, and Founder, Environmental Health Trust, Teton Village, WY, USA
  32. Joao De Assuncao, M.S., Ph.D., Professor and Department Head, Environmental Health, University of Sao Paulo School of Public Health, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  33. Cynthia A. de Wit, Ph.D., Professor, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  34. Mike Denison, Ph.D., Professor of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
  35. Miriam Diamond, Ph.D., Professor, Geography, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  36. Joseph DiGangi, Ph.D., Senior Scientist and Technical Advisor, International POPs Elimination Network, Berkeley, CA, USA
  37. Alin Dirtu, Ph.D., Researcher, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  38. Michelle Douskey, Ph.D., Lecturer, Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkley, CA, USA
  39. Anne Ehrlich, Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist, Biology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
  40. David Epel, Ph.D., Jane & Marshall Steel Jr. Professor Emeritus in Marine Sciences, Cell and Developmental Biology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
  41. Brenda Eskenazi, M.A., Ph.D., Jennifer and Brian Maxwell Professor of Maternal Health and Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  42. Tim Evans, Ph.D., Cancer Registration Information Manager, West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit, Birmingham, United Kingdom
  43. Peter Fantke, Ph.D., Research Associate, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
  44. Joseph Gardella Jr., Ph.D., Professor and Larkin Chair of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
  45. Philip Germansderfer, D.Sc., International Marketing Sales, Fluid Managment Systems, Watertown, MA, USA
  46. Gillian Gibson, M.Sc., Environmental Scientist, Gibson Consulting and Training, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  47. Andreas Gies, Ph.D., Director and Professor, Department for Environmental Hygiene, Federal Environment Agency, Berlin, Germany
  48. Robert Gould, M.D., President, San Francisco Bay Area Chapter of Physicians for Social Responsibility, Berkeley, CA, USA
  49. Konstanze Grote, Ph.D., Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charité University Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  50. Rui Guo, Ministry of Environment, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  51. Jana Hajslova, Ph.D., Head of Department of Food Analysis, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic
  52. Ralph Hall, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA, USA
  53. Bruce Hammock, Ph.D., Professor, Entomology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
  54. Tran Thi Tuyet Hanh, M.P.H., Lecturer in Environmental Health, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam
  55. Kim Harley, Ph.D., Associate Director, Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  56. Stuart Harrad, Ph.D., Professor, Environmental Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
  57. Robert Harrison, M.D., M.P.H., Clinical Professor, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
  58. Line Smastuen Haug, Doctoral Student, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  59. Yasuhiro Hirai, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Environment Preservation Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  60. Ivan Holoubek, Ph.D., Director and Professor, Masaryk University, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Brno, Czech Republic
  61. Ron Hoogenboom, Ph.D., Toxicologist, RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Center, Wageningen, the Netherlands, and Board Member, International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Zürich, Switzerland
  62. David Hope, CEO, Pacific Rim Laboratories, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada
  63. William J. Hirzy, Ph.D., Chemist in Residence, American University, Washington, DC, USA
  64. Heinrich Huehnerfuss, Ph.D., Professor, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  65. Alastair Iles, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  66. Tomohiko Isobe, Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow, Ehime University, Matsuyama City, Japan
  67. Kristina Jakobsson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  68. Sarah Janssen, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., Senior Scientist, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York City, NY, USA
  69. Niklas Johansson, Scientist, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  70. Catherine Karr, M.D., Ph.D., M.S., Assistant Professor and Director, Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit, Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  71. Donald Kennedy, Ph.D., Bing Professor of Environmental Science, Emeritus, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, and Editor Emeritus, Science
  72. Sergio Kuriyama, Ph.D., Guest Scientist, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, National School of Public Health, Fiocruz, Brazil
  73. James Leckie, M.S., Ph.D., C.L. Peck, Class of 1906 Professor of Engineering and Director, Center for Sustainable Development and Global Competitiveness, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
  74. Pamela Lein, Ph.D., Professor, Molecular Biosciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
  75. Juliana Leonel, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Researcher, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, Brazil
  76. Mark Levine, Ph.D., Leader, China Energy Group, and Former Director, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
  77. Donald Lucas, Ph.D., Deputy Director, Environment, Health, and Safety Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
  78. Richard Luthy, Ph.D., Silas H. Palmer Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
  79. Karl Mair, D.Sc., Senior Scientist, Eco Research SRL, Bolzano, Italy
  80. Govindan Malarvannan, Ph.D., Research Fellow, Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Matsuyama City, Japan
  81. John Meeker, M.S., Sc.D., Assistant Professor, Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
  82. Richard Meigs, P.E., Senior Principal Engineer, RJR Engineering, Ventura, CA, USA
  83. Mark Miller, M.D., M.P.H., Director, Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit, and Assistant Clinical Professor, Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
  84. Paolo Mocarelli, M.D., Professor and Director, Department of Clinical Pathology, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy
  85. Rachel Morello-Frosch, M.P.H., Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Science Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  86. Jochen Mueller, Ph.D., Professor, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
  87. Tom Muir, M.S., Retired, Environment Canada, Québec City, Quebec, Canada
  88. Martin Mulvihill, Ph.D., Associate Director for Education and Outreach, Center for Green Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  89. Anbu Munasamy, M.S., Ph.D., National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology–Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Thiruvananthapuran, Kerala, India
  90. Richard Murphy, Ph.D., Director of Science and Education, Jean-Michel Cousteau Ocean Futures Society, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
  91. Takeshi Nakano, Ph.D., Research Professor, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
  92. Shoji Nakayama, M.D., Ph.D., National Research Council Associate, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
  93. Amgalan Natsagdorj, Ph.D., Department Head, Environmental Chemistry, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  94. William Nazaroff, Ph.D., Daniel Tellep Distinguished Professor and Vice Chair for Academic Affairs, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  95. John Neuberger, Dr.Ph., M.P.H., M.B.A., Professor, Preventative Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS, USA
  96. Jessica Norrgran, Doctoral Student, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  97. Fardin Oliaei, Ph.D., M.P.A., Consultant, Cambridge EnviroScience Consulting, LLC, Cambridge, MA, USA
  98. Kees Olie, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  99. Olaf Paepke, Ph.D., Eurofins, Hamburg, Germany
  100. Victoria Persky, M.D., Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, Chicago, IL, USA
  101. Agneta Rannug, Ph.D., Professor, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  102. Ulf Rannug, Ph.D., Professor, Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  103. Eric Reiner, Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist, Ontario Ministry of Environment, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  104. Martin Reinhard, Ph.D., Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
  105. Karen Rice, M.D., Physician, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Walnut Creek Kaiser, Walnut Creek, CA, USA
  106. Robert H. Rice, Ph.D., Professor of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
  107. Anthony Roach, Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist, Government of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  108. David Roberts, Ph.D., William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Astrophysics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA
  109. Mary Roberts, Ph.D., Professor, Chemistry, Boston College, Boston, MA, USA
  110. Christina Ruden, Ph.D., Professor, Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
  111. Cindy Lee Russell, M.D., Vice President of Community Health, Santa Clara County Medical Association, San Jose, CA, USA
  112. Kenneth Sauer, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  113. Arnold Schecter, M.D., M.P.H., Professor, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas, TX, USA
  114. Martin Scheringer, D.Sc., Senior Scientist, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland, and Board Member, International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Zürich, Switzerland
  115. Ted Schettler, M.D., M.P.H., Science Director, Science and Environmental Health Network, Ames, IA, USA
  116. Karl-Werner Schramm, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
  117. Megan Schwarzman, M.D., M.P.H., Research Scientist, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA, and Associate Physician, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
  118. Susan D. Shaw, Ph.D., Director, Marine Environmental Research Institute, Blue Hill, ME, USA
  119. Heather Stapleton, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
  120. Kristina Sundqvist, Ph.D., Project Assistant, Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
  121. Patrice Sutton, M.P.H., Research Scientist, Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
  122. Shanna Swan, Ph.D., Professor and Associate Chair for Research, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Director, Center for Reproductive Epidemiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY, USA
  123. Takumi Takasuga, Ph.D., Director, Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto, Japan
  124. Chris Talsness, D.V.M., Working Group Leader in Reproductive Toxicology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  125. Cathrine Thomsen, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  126. Gregg Tomy, Ph.D., Adjunct Assistant Professor, Fisheries and Oceans, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  127. Joao Paulo Machado Torres, Sc.D., Associate Professor, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  128. James Trosko, Ph.D., Professor, Pediatrics and Human Development, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
  129. Mary Turyk, Ph.D., M.P.H., Research Assistant Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
  130. Gunther Umlauf, Ph.D., European Commission Joint Research Center, Ispra, Italy
  131. Bryan Vining, Ph.D., Analytical Perspectives, Wilmington, NC, USA
  132. Qiuquan Wang, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
  133. Yawei Wang, Ph.D., Research Center for Eco Environmental Science, Beijing, China
  134. Julie Shu-Li Wang, Ph.D., Investigator, National Health Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan
  135. Rosemary Waring, Ph.D., Honorary Reader, Human Toxicology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
  136. Thomas F. Webster, D.Sc., Associate Professor and Associate Chair, Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
  137. Charles Weschler, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, and Continuing Visiting Professor, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
  138. Stevie Wilding, Chemist, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  139. Duane Wilding, M.E., Senior Engineer, Maryland Environmental Service, Millersville, MD, USA
  140. Gayle Windham, Ph.D., Researcher, Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
  141. Tracey Woodruff, Ph.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor and Director, Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
  142. Jae-Ho Yang, M.D., M.P.H., Professor, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan, Korea
  143. Tom Young, M.P.P., Ph.D., Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
  144. Bin Zhao, Doctoral Student, Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
  145. R. Thomas Zoeller, M.A., Ph.D., Professor, Biology Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
  146. Ami Zota, Sc.D., Postdoctoral Scholar, Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, University of California, San Francisco, Oakland, CA, USA

Post-publication signatories. Institutions are for identification purposes only.

  1. Rebecca Gasior Altman, Ph.D., Lecturer, Community Health Program, Tufts University, USA
  2. Cort Anastasio, Ph.D., Professor Land, Air & Water Resources University of California, Davis, USA
  3. Lillemor Asplund, Ph.D., Lecturer, Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  4. Peter Behnisch, Ph.D., Director, BioDetection Systems BV (BDS), The Netherlands
  5. Susanne Bejerot, M.D., Assistant professor, Karolinska institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, St Göran Hospital, Sweden
  6. James Bill, Master of Architecture, Partner and licensed architect, ZIA [zero impact architecture], USA
  7. Michal Bittner, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Czech Republic
  8. Bruce Blumberg, Ph.D., Professor Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, USA
  9. Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, Ph.D., Professor in Public Health Sciences, Department of Health and Environment, Karlstad University, Sweden
  10. Lindsay Bramwell, MSc, Research Associate, Institute of Health and Society Newcastle University, UK
  11. Finn Bro-Rasmussen, Professor Emeritus, Ecology & Environmental Science (DTU), former Chair/member of EU/CSTE, Scientific Committee Toxicology & Ecotoxicology, President, SECOTOX, Denmark
  12. Anna Christiansson, Ph.D., Environmental Chemistry, Chemical adviser, Stockholm University, Sweden
  13. Francisco Costa, Ph.D., Environmental Scientist, Environmental Agency, USA
  14. Per Ola Darnerud, Associate Professor, Senior toxicologist, Research and Development Department, National Food Administration, Sweden
  15. Merete Eggesbo, MD, Ph. D., Senior Researcher, Department of genes and environment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
  16. Sune Eriksson, Ph.D., Consultant, Er DevCo Consultants AB, Sweden
  17. Ann Gardner, MD, Ph.D., Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Sweden
  18. Stephen Gardner, DVM, Medical Director, Albany Animal Hospital, USA
  19. Chris A. Geiger, Ph.D., Green Purchasing Program Manager City Toxics Reduction Program San Francisco Department of the Environment, USA
  20. Adam Grochowalski, Ph.D., Head of Laboratory for Trace Organic Analyses, Chemical Engineering and Technology, Krakow University of Technology, Poland
  21. Arno Gutleb, Dr., Project Leader, Environment and Agrobiotechnologies Centre de Recherche Public – Gabriel Lippmann, Luxembourg
  22. Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Ph.D., Professor, Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, USA
  23. Shara Hilton, M.S., Graduate Student, Environmental Studies, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, USA
  24. Ch-Ying Hsieh, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
  25. Paula I. Johnson, Ph.D., M.P.H., Postdoctoral Scholar, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA USA
  26. Jill Johnston, MSPH, Organizing Coordinator, Southwest Workers Union, USA
  27. Maria Jönsson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Sweden
  28. Hronn Jorundsdottir, Ph.D., Project Manager, Food Safety and Environment, Iceland
  29. Bonnie J. Kaplan, Ph.D., Professor, Departments of Paediatrics and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Canada
  30. Walter Kloepffer, Ph.D., Professor, Physical Chemistry, University of Mainz, Germany
  31. Lynda Knobeloch, Ph.D., Environmental Toxicology, Senior Toxicologist, Environmental and Occupational Health, Wisconsin Department of Health Services, USA
  32. Anton Kocan, M.Sc., Ph.D., Head of Department, Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Slavakia
  33. Katheryn Kolesar, Masters Candidate, Graduate Student, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, USA
  34. Petr Kukucka, MSc, Ph.D., Student Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Czech Republic
  35. Michele La Merrill, Ph.D., MPH, Environmental Pediatric Postdoctoral Fellow, Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, USA
  36. Duk-Hee Lee, MD, Ph.D., Professor Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyungpook National University, South Korea
  37. Monica Lind, Ph.D., Research Fellow in Environmental Toxicology, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden
  38. Rainer Lohmann, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, USA
  39. Sonya Lunder, MPH, Senior Analyst, Environmental Working Group, USA
  40. Alex Madonik, Ph.D., Organic Chemistry, Senior Scientist, Green Science Policy Institute, USA
  41. Jiri Matousek, Ph.D., DSc, Dipl.-Eng. Professor, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Czech Republic
  42. Stanley McKnight, Ph.D., Professor Pharmacology, University of Washington, USA
  43. Shelly Miller, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
  44. Sverker Molander, Ph.D., Professor, Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
  45. Jae Ryoung Oh, Ph.D., Section Head, Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory, IAEA, Monaco
  46. Lena Olsén, Ph.D., Researcher, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Division of Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Swedish University of Agricultral Sciences (SLU), Sweden
  47. Bindu Panikkar, MA/MS, Post Graduate Fellow Sociology, Environmental Studies, Brown University, USA
  48. Judith Perlinger, Sc.D., Associate Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, USA
  49. Kevin Plaxco, Ph.D., Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
  50. Yanling Qiu, Ph.D., Associate Professor, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, China
  51. Cathryn J. Rehmeyer, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Pathology, Pikeville College School of Osteopathic Medicine, USA
  52. Charles Riley, Life Science/Physiology, CEO, Discover-e, USA
  53. Ott Roots, Ph.D., Director/Chief Scientist, Estonian Environmental Research Institute, Estonian Environmental Research Centre, Estonia
  54. Per Rydberg, Ph.D., Reseacher, Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Sweden
  55. Andreas Rydén, M.Sc, Ph.D., Student, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Sweden
  56. Andreas Schaeffer, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
  57. Martin Schlabach, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Environmental Chemistry, NILU, Norway
  58. Margret Schlumpf, Ph.D., CO Director GREEN Tox, Institute of Anatomy, University of Zuerich, Switzerland
  59. Matthew Schmitz, M.S., Graduate Student, Health Sciences, University of Illinois, Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
  60. Veena Singla, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
  61. Cynthia Sparr, M.S. Tax, Builder, ECOwREN, USA
  62. Nancy Sudak, MD, Staff Physician, Lake Superior Community Health Center, USA
  63. Neeta Thacker, Ph.D., Synthetic Organic Chemistry Scientist G & Head, Analytical Instruments Division (AID), National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), India
  64. Theodora Tsongas, Ph.D., M.S., Adjunct Associate Professor, School of Community Health, Portland State University, USA
  65. Stefan Voorspoels, Ph.D., Research Manager, VITO- Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Mol, Belgium
  66. Gordon Vrdoljak, Ph.D., MSc, BSc, Research Scientist IV, Food and Drug Lab branch, California Department of Public Health, USA
  67. Robert Wålinder, Ph.D., Senior physician, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University and University Hospital, Sweden
  68. Dongli Wang, Ph.D., Environmental Scientist, California Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Laboratory, Richmond, CA, USA
  69. Kimberly A. Warner, Ph.D., Marine Pollution Scientist, Oceana, USA
  70. Glenys Webster, MRM, Ph.D. candidate, School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, Canada
  71. Bernice Wiberg, MD, Ph.D., Senior consultant, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden
  72. Amber R. Wise, Ph.D., UC Berkeley, Assistant Professor Science – Chemistry, Asian University for Women, Bangladesh
  73. Zhiqiang Yu, Ph.D., Professor, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Sam Adu-Kumi, M.S.
Deputy Director, Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana

Åke Bergman, Ph.D.
Professor, Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Sweden

Arlene Blum, Ph.D.
Visiting Scholar, Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, USA

Phil Brown, Ph.D.
Professor, Sociology and Environmental Studies, Brown University, USA

Cynthia A. de Wit, Ph.D.
Professor, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Sweden

Joe Gardella, Ph.D.
Professor and Larkin Chair of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, USA

Tran Thi Tuyet Hanh, M.P.H.
Lecturer in Environmental Health, Hanoi School of Public Health, Vietnam

Donald Lucas, Ph.D.
Deputy Director, Environment, Health, and Safety Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA

Anbu Munasamy, M.S., Ph.D.
National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuran, India

Susan D. Shaw, Ph.D.
Director, Marine Environmental Research Institute, USA

Thomas F. Webster, Sc.D.
Associate Professor and Associate Chair, Department of Environmental Health, Boston University, USA

Ami Zota, Sc.D.
Postdoctoral Scholar, University of California, San Francisco, USA