Flame retardant chemicals were added to the foam in baby products such as carriers, strollers, and changing pads beginning in 1975 to meet a California furniture flammability standard called Technical Bulletin 117 (TB117). Flame retardants have also been found in juvenile products such as sleep mats and crib mattresses that were not regulated by TB117.
This use of flame retardants in juvenile products is of particular concern as children and infants are very sensitive to the adverse health effects of these chemicals, some of which are carcinogens and developmental toxins. Additionally, children’s products do not present a significant fire hazard.
On January 1, 2014, the old TB117 standard was replaced by a new standard called TB117-2013. Under this new standard, children’s products are exempt from California furniture flammability standards. See Policy Changes below for a list of exempted products. The Green Science Policy Institute continues to work with policy makers, scientists, and manufacturers to support implementation of the new standard.
New products are not expected to contain added flame retardants. However, there will be a transition period while older products are sold off. Until new products are widely available in stores, the foam in baby products is likely to contain flame retardants. Consumers should look for products without a TB117 label and also be sure to ask retailers for flame retardant free products.
It is important to note that car seats must comply with the federal motor vehicle flammability standard FMVSS 302 and will continue to contain flame retardants. However, the correct use of children’s car seats is important for ensuring safety.
Peer-reviewed paper: Flame retardants in children’s products
In collaboration with Dr. Heather Stapleton at Duke University, in 2010 we tested the foam from 101 baby products including nursing pillows, changing table pads, sleep positioners, and baby carriers.
We found that 80% of the products contained toxic or inadequately tested flame retardant chemicals in the foam. See sidebar for further details.
Babies are exposed to flame retardant chemicals in utero and through their mother’s milk. Since young children play and crawl on the floor and put their hands in their mouths, they can also accidentally ingest more house dust contaminated with flame retardants.
These chemicals are linked to numerous health concerns to which fetuses, infants and children are sensitive, including toxicity to the developing brain and reproductive system.
Young children are more vulnerable to flame retardant chemicals
On average, children 1.5-4 years old have about three times higher levels of flame retardants in their blood compared to their mothers. Data from Lunder 2010.
Some of the flame retardants we found in baby products:
- TDCPP (chlorinated Tris), removed from use in baby pajamas in 1978 and listed as a carcinogen by California in 2011
- Firemaster 550, associated with obesity and anxiety in animal studies
- Penta-BDE, (pentabrominated diphenyl ether) globally banned due to toxicity and environmental persistence
These flame retardants are all called organohalogens as they contain carbon bonded to bromine or chlorine.
Research project: Flame retardants in nursery schools
The new flammability standard, TB117-2013, should make products without flame retardants increasingly available. TB117-2013 does not ban the use of flame retardants, so it is important to verify with the retailer or manufacturer that a product is flame retardant-free.
After the GSP Safe Kids Campaign produced research for our paper identifying harmful flame retardants in baby products was completed in 2010, California BHFTI exempted strollers, infant carriers and nursing pillows from TB117.
In 2013, TB117 was replaced by a new standard, TB117-2013. In addition to improving the compliance test for furniture, TB117-2013 exempts most additional juvenile products that contain foam:
- booster seats
- car seats*
- changing pads
- floor play mats
- highchair pads
- infant bouncers
- infant seats
- infant swings
- infant walkers
- nursing pads
- playpen side pads
- portable hook-on chairs
Under the new standard, in effect as of January 1, 2014, exempted items do not require a label. Read more in our blog.
*Car seats must comply with the federal motor vehicle flammability standard FMVSS 302 and will continue to contain flame retardants.
Re-use versus disposal of flame retarded baby products
Baby products containing polyurethane foam that are labeled as meeting California furniture flammability standard Technical Bulletin 117 are likely to contain flame retardants. In order to reduce children’s exposure, parents might consider replacing such baby products and not handing them down to friends or to younger children. Flame retardant free baby products should become increasingly available thanks to California’s new furniture flammability regulation TB117-2013.
Green Science Policy Institute and others are researching safe disposal options for foam-filled and plastic products containing flame retardants. At present, disposal in a land fill seems a better option than continuing to use and reuse such products.
- Popular car seats found to contain flame retardant
- Flame retardants in baby products
- How to reduce toxics in your home
- Consumer page: Learn more about how to buy safer children’s products