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The Florence Statement

The Florence Statement on Triclosan and Triclocarban was introduced at the 36th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (DIOXIN 2016) in Florence, Italy.

This consensus statement has over 200 signatories from 29 countries, representing expertise on health and environmental impacts and the efficacy of antimicrobials. The statement was published in Environmental Health Perspectives in June 2017.

Scientists from academia and nonprofit organizations co-authored The Florence Statement to share current scientific research on two widely used antimicrobial chemicals and to motivate broader consideration of the long-term impacts of antimicrobial use.

The Florence Statement

Read the statement in Environmental Health Perspectives.

Authors: Rolf U. Halden,1 Avery E. Lindeman,2 Allison E. Aiello,3 David Andrews,4 William A. Arnold,5 Patricia Fair,6 Rebecca E. Fuoco,7 Laura A. Geer,8 Paula I. Johnson,9 Rainer Lohmann,10 Kristopher McNeill,11 Victoria P. Sacks,12 Ted Schettler,13 Roland Weber,14 R. Thomas Zoeller,15 and Arlene Blum16

1Biodesign Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA 2Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, California, USA 3Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA 4Environmental Working Group, Washington, District of Columbia, USA 5Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA 6Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charleston, South Carolina, USA 7Health Research Communication Strategies, Los Angeles, California, USA 8Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, State University of New York, Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, New York, USA 9California Safe Cosmetics Program, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA 10University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA 11Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland 12Independent Researcher, Berkeley, California, USA 13Science and Environmental Health Network, Ames, Iowa, USA 14POPs Environmental Consulting, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany 15University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA 16Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA

As scientists, medical doctors, and public health professionals, we are concerned about the continued widespread use of the chlorinated antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban for the following reasons:

  1. Triclosan and triclocarban are used as antimicrobials, a class of chemicals present in >2,000 products including soaps, toothpastes, detergents, clothing, toys, carpets, plastics, and paints. In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan and triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevent disease.
  2. Triclosan and triclocarban used in consumer products end up in the environment and have been detected in a wide variety of matrices worldwide.
  3. Triclosan and triclocarban persist in the environment and are a source of toxic and carcinogenic compounds including dioxins, chloroform, and chlorinated anilines.
  4. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their transformation products and byproducts bioaccumulate in aquatic plants and animals, and triclosan partitions into human blood and breast milk.
  5. Triclosan and triclocarban have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms.
  6. Humans are exposed to triclosan and triclocarban through direct contact with personal care products and from other sources including food, drinking water, and dust. Triclosan has been detected in the urine of a majority of humans tested.
  7. Triclosan and triclocarban are endocrine disruptors and are associated with reproductive and developmental impacts in animal and in vitro studies. Potential implications for human reproduction and development are of concern and merit further study.
  8. Human epidemiology and animal studies suggest triclosan exposure can increase sensitivity to allergens.
  9. Overuse of triclosan may contribute to antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance and may modify the microbiomes.
  10. A number of authorities, including the FDA [U.S. Food and Drug Administration], have restricted the use of triclosan and triclocarban in certain types of soaps. These and other antimicrobial chemicals are generally not restricted from use in other products.

We therefore call on the international community to limit the production and use of triclosan and triclocarban and to question the use of other antimicrobials. We urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers to take the actions recommended below:

Recommendations

  1. Avoid the use of triclosan, triclocarban, and other antimicrobial chemicals except where they provide an evidence-based health benefit (e.g. physician-prescribed toothpaste for treating gum disease) and there is adequate evidence demonstrating they are safe.
  2. Where antimicrobials are necessary, use safer alternatives that are not persistent and pose no risk to humans or aquatic ecosystems.
  3. Label all products containing triclosan, triclocarban, and other antimicrobials, even in cases where no health claims are made.
  4. Evaluate the safety of antimicrobials and their transformation products throughout the entire product lifecycle, including manufacture, long-term use, disposal, and environmental release.

Signatories

Institutional affiliations are provided for identification purposes only.

  1. Ovokeroye Abafe, PhD, Research Scientist, Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  2. Morteza Abbaszadegan, PhD, Professor and Director, Civil, Environmental and Sustainable Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  3. Amirhossein Rezaei Adaryani, PhD Student in Infrastructure and Environmental Systems, Department of Civil Engineering, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, USA
  4. Sam Adu-Kumi, PhD, Director, Chemicals Control and Management Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Accra, Ghana
  5. Diana Aga, PhD, Professor, Chemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
  6. C. Athena Aktipis, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  7. Pedro Alvarez, PhD, George R. Brown Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA
  8. Gangadhar Andaluri, PhD, Adjunct Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  9. Dana Armstrong, MSc, PhD Student, Marine-Estuarine-Environmental Sciences (MEES), University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
  10. Abel Arkenbout, PhD, CEO, Toxicowatch Foundation, Harlingen, The Netherlands
  11. Misha Askren, MD, Partner Emeritus, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Family Medicine, Sierra Club, Environmental Defense Fund, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  12. Jannicke Bakkejord, MSc, Chief Engineer, POPs Laboratory, National Institute of Food and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen, Norway
  13. Jose Luis Balcazar, PhD, Research Scientist, Water Quality Area, Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona, Spain
  14. William Ball, PhD, Professor, Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
  15. Damià Barceló, PhD, Director, Water Quality, Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona, Spain
  16. Morton Barlaz, PhD, Professor and Head, Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
  17. Miriam Barlow, PhD, Associate Professor, Molecular and Cell Biology, UC Merced, Merced, CA, USA
  18. Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, PhD, Mimshak Fellow, Scientific Advisor, Public Health Services, Israeli Ministry of Health, Herzlyia, Israel
  19. Kirk Barrett, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Manhattan College, South Orange, NJ, USA
  20. William Battaglin, MSc, Research Hydrologist, Colorado Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO, USA
  21. Peter Behnisch, PhD, Director, BioDetection Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  22. Antonio Benetti, PhD, Associate Professor, Hydraulic Research Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil
  23. Kai Bester, PhD, Professor, Department of Environmental Science - Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
  24. Terry Bidleman, PhD, Senior Professor, Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
  25. Julie Billings, MD, Piedmont, CA, USA
  26. Shyam Biswal, PhD, Professor, Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
  27. Carles Borrego, PhD, Research Professor, Quality Area, Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona, Spain
  28. Charles B. Bott, PhD, PE, BCEE, Director of Water Technology and Research, Hampton Roads Sanitation District and Adjunct Professor, Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA, and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA
  29. Kirsten Bouman, Assistant, Lab Animal Biodiversity, Biology, University of Leiden and Staff Member, Toxicowatch Foundation, The Netherlands
  30. Edward Bouwer, PhD, Professor, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
  31. Hindrik Bouwman, PhD, Professor, Zoology, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
  32. Gregory Boyce, PhD, Assistant Professor, Chemistry, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL, USA
  33. Lindsay Bramwell, MSc, Research Associate and Contaminated Land Officer, Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK
  34. Thomas Bruton, MSE, PhD Candidate, Civil and Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  35. Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz, PhD, Assistant Professor, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  36. Michael Carbajales-Dale, PhD, Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson SC, USA
  37. Sara Castiglioni, PhD, Researcher, Environmental Health Sciences, Mario Negri Institute, Milan, Italy
  38. Ezra Cates, PhD, Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Anderson, SC, USA
  39. Tzu-Chiao Chao, PhD, Research Professor, Head, Cellular Impacts Facility, Institute of Environmental Change and Society, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada
  40. Steven Chillrud, PhD, Senior Doherty Research Scientist, Geochemistry Division, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA
  41. Erik Coats, PhD, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA
  42. Adrian Covaci, PhD, Professor, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
  43. Craig Criddle, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
  44. Alison Cupples, PhD, Associate Professor, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
  45. Viet Dang, PhD, Assistant Scientist, Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
  46. Michel Dedeo, PhD, Chemist, Healthy Building Network, Oakland, CA, USA
  47. Deborah de Moulpied, MEd, Faculty, Environment, Anticancer Lifestyle Program, Concord, NH, USA
  48. Hale Demirtepe, MSc, Researcher, Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
  49. Randhir Deo, PhD, Assistant Professor, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Grand Canyon University, Phoenix, AR, USA
  50. Dionysios Dionysiou, PhD, UNESCO Co-Chair Professor of “Water Access and Sustainability” and Professor of Environmental Engineering, Department of Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering (DBCEE), University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
  51. Hansa Done, PhD, Research Analyst, Office of Knowledge Enterprise Development Research Analytics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  52. Frank Dorman, PhD, Associate Professor, Biochemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA
  53. Kyle Doudrick, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA
  54. Jörg Drewes, PhD, Chair Professor, Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany
  55. Metin Duran, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA
  56. Tracey Easthope, MPH, Health Care Without Harm, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
  57. James Englehardt, PhD, PE, Professor, Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
  58. Ulrika Eriksson, PhD, School of Science and Technology, Man-Technology-Environment research centre (MTM), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  59. Lee Ferguson, PhD, Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
  60. Martin Forter, PhD, Manager, Ärztinnen und Ärzte für Umweltschutz (AefU), Doctors for the Environment Switzerland, Basel, Switzerland
  61. Peter Fox, PhD, Professor, Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  62. Jessica Furrer, PhD, Assistant Professor, Physics and Engineering, Benedict College, Columbia, SC, USA
  63. Stephen Gardner, DVM, Medical Director, VCA Albany Animal Hospital, Albany, CA, USA
  64. Kevin Gilmore, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA
  65. Lynn Goldman, MD, MS, MPH, Dean and Professor, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
  66. Jay Graham, PhD, Program Director, Global Health, Public Health Institute, Oakland, CA, USA
  67. Jessica Green, PhD, Professor, Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
  68. Nancy Grimm, PhD, Professor, Life Sciences, Arizona State University School of Life Sciences, Tempe, AZ, USA
  69. Gudmundur Gudmundsson, Food Scientist, Reykjavik, Iceland
  70. John Gulliver, PhD, Professor, Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
  71. Stuart Harrad, PhD, Professor of Environmental Chemistry, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  72. Erica M. Hartmann, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
  73. Lee Hartwell, PhD, Professor, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  74. Bernhard Hennig, PhD, Professor, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
  75. Janet Hering, PhD, Director, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  76. Juliane Hollender, PhD, Department Head, Environmental Chemistry, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  77. Thomas Holsen, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA
  78. Keri Hornbuckle, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
  79. Kerry Howe, PhD, Professor, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
  80. Alin Constantin Ionas, PhD, Researcher, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  81. Zainab Ismail, PhD, Professor, Environmental Engineering, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq
  82. Anne Hope Jahren, PhD, Professor, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  83. Veerle Jaspers, PhD, Associate Professor, Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  84. Megan Jehn, PhD, Associate Professor, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  85. Allan Astrup Jensen, PhD, Research Director, CEO, Nordic Institute for Product Sustainability, Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology (NIPSECT), Copenhagen, Denmark
  86. Jeff Jeremiason, PhD, Associate Professor of Chemistry, Environmental Studies, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN, USA
  87. Carol Johnson, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
  88. Howard Junca, PhD, Scientific Director, Div. Ecogenomics and Holobionts, Microbiomas Foundation, Chia, Colombia
  89. Tomasz Kalinowski, PhD, Environmental Scientist, AECOM, Rocky Hill, CT, USA
  90. Norma Kanarek, PhD, MPH, Faculty, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
  91. Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, PhD, Reader in Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK
  92. Kay Kelterer, Consultant, Environmental Consulting, Seevetal, Germany
  93. Wiebke Kelterer, BSc, Hamburg, Germany
  94. Jana Klánová, PhD, Director, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  95. Wolfgang Korner, PhD, Head of Unit, Analysis of Organic Compounds, Lab Manager, Bavarian Environment Agency (LFU), Augsburg, Germany
  96. Petr Kukucka, PhD, Research Assistant, Man-Technology-Environment research centre (MTM), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  97. Perihan Binnur Kurt Karakus, PhD, Associate Professor, Environmental Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey
  98. Carol Kwiatkowski, PhD, Executive Director, The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, Paonia, CO, USA
  99. Henrik Kylin, PhD, Professor, Thematic Studies - Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
  100. Silvia Lacorte, PhD, Professor, Environmental Chemistry, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain
  101. Gisella Lamas Samanamud, PhD, Postdoc, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
  102. Laurie LaPat-Polasko, PhD, Principal Consultant, Remediation, Ramboll Environ, Inc., Phoenix, AZ, USA
  103. Jenny Lawler, PhD, Academic, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland
  104. Robert S. Lawrence, MD, MACP, Professor Emeritus, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
  105. TorOve Leiknes, PhD, Direction, Professor, WDRC Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC), KAUST King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
  106. Pamela Lein, PhD, Professor, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA
  107. Monica Lind, PhD, Associate Professor, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  108. Lars Lind, PhD, Professor, Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  109. Elena Lingas, DrPH, MPH, Associate Professor, Touro University California, Vallejo, CA, USA
  110. Andreas Linge Tomren, PhD, Chief Engineer, National Institute of Food and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen, Norway
  111. Jinxia Liu, PhD, Assistant Professor, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
  112. Frank Loeffler, PhD, Governor's Chair Professor and Director, Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Department of Microbiology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
  113. Bommanna Loganathan, PhD, Professor, Chemistry, Murray State University, Murray, KY, USA
  114. Panna Lossy, MD, University of California San Francisco Clinical Faculty, Family Medicine, Santa Rosa Residency, Santa Rosa, CA, USA
  115. Dave Love, PhD, MSPH, Associate Scientist, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
  116. Gregory Lowry, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
  117. Richard G. Luthy, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
  118. Douglas Mackay, PhD, Adjunct Professor, Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
  119. Kris Maillacheruvu, PhD, Professor, Civil Engineering and Construction, Bradley University, Peoria, IL, USA
  120. Ian Makey, MD, Physician/Assistant Professor, Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
  121. Colleen Makey, PhD, Research Fellow, Environmental Health, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
  122. Bhagyashree Manivannan, PhD, Affiliated Faculty Member, Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  123. Sherri Mason, PhD, Professor of Chemistry and Department of Geology and Environmental Sciences Chair, The State University of New York, Fredonia, NY, USA
  124. Andrew Maynard, PhD, Professor, School for the Future of Innovation in Society, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  125. Eugene McCall, PhD, JD, President, McCall Environmental, PA, Greenville, SC, USA
  126. Perry McCarty, ScD, Professor Emeritus, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
  127. Jason P. McDevitt, PhD, Research Scientist, William and Mary Research Institute, Williamsburg, VA, USA
  128. Joan McGregor, PhD, Professor, Philosophy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  129. Patrick McNamara, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA
  130. Yujie Men, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
  131. Annelle Mendez, PhD Candidate, Safety and Environmental Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  132. Lama Mghames, MSc, Project Manager, NIP POPs Project/PCB Management Project, Ministry of Environment, Beirut, Lebanon
  133. Jelena Milić, PhD, Scientific Associate, Centre of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Serbia
  134. Shelly Miller, PhD, Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
  135. Natalie Mladenov, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA
  136. Bill Mott, MESc, Director, The Ocean Project, Providence, RI, USA
  137. Tom Muir, MSc, Retired, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada
  138. Lubica Palkovicova Murinova, MD, PhD, Senior Scientist, Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia
  139. Steven Mylon, PhD, Associate Professor, Chemistry, Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA
  140. Keeve Nachman, PhD, MHS, Assistant Professor, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
  141. Takeshi Nakano, PhD, Guest Professor, Research Center for Environmental Preservation, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
  142. Tala Navab-Daneshmand, PhD, Assistant Professor, Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
  143. Randolph Nesse, MN, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  144. Paige Novak, PhD, Professor, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
  145. Zuleica Nycz, Director, Chemical Safety and Environmental Health, Toxisphera Environmental Health Association, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
  146. Kees Olie, PhD, Professor, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  147. Christoph Ort, PhD, Group Leader, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  148. Jonathan Patz, MD, MPH, Professor and Director, Global Health Institute, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, USA
  149. Daniel Paull, PhD, Assistant Professor, Chemistry, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL, USA
  150. Graham F. Peaslee, PhD, Professor, Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA
  151. Diana Petitti, MD, MPH, Clinical Professor, Biomedical Informatics, University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix, Phoenix, AR, USA
  152. Jaime Plazas-Tuttle, MSc, PhD Candidate, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA
  153. Anuschka Polder, PhD, Researcher, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway
  154. Rachel Poretsky, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
  155. Peerapong Pornwongthong, PhD, Lecturer and Researcher, Agro-Industrial, Food and Environmental Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue Bangkok Province, Thailand
  156. George Poste, DVM, PhD, Director, Complex Adaptive Systems, Arizona State University, Scottsdale, AZ, USA
  157. Carsten Prasse, PhD, Postdoc, Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, USA
  158. Ana Prieto, PhD, Research Associate, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
  159. Andrew Purgiel, Chemical Engineering Student, University of Maine, South Berwick, ME, USA
  160. Brenda Read-Daily, PhD, Assistant Professor of Engineering, Engineering and Physics, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, PA, USA
  161. Fiona Regan, PhD, Director, DCU Water Institute, Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland
  162. Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, PhD Candidate, Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  163. Susan Richardson, PhD, Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
  164. Bruce Rittmann, PhD, Regents’ Professor of Environmental Engineering, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  165. Larry Robertson, MPH, PhD, Professor and Program Director, Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
  166. Chelsea Rochman, PhD, Assistant Professor, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
  167. Stephen Roth, PhD, Professor, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
  168. Salim Sakaroum, Researcher, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, Oman
  169. Amina Salamova, PhD, Assistant Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
  170. Christopher Sales, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  171. Amy Sapkota, PhD, Associate Professor, Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland, School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA
  172. Amir Sapkota, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA
  173. Roger Scholten, MD, Pediatrician, General Practice, Swedish Medical Group, Seattle, WA, USA
  174. Thomas Seager, PhD, Associate Professor, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  175. Janine Selendy, BA/BSc, Co-Chair, Founder, Publisher, Biology, Horizon International, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
  176. Deborah Sills, PhD, Assistant Professor, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA
  177. Anna Soehl, MSc, Science & Policy Consultant, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
  178. Søren Sørensen, PhD, Chemist, Division of Residues, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Ringsted, Denmark
  179. Elena Sorokin, PhD, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
  180. Jitka Strakova, Arnika - Toxics and Waste Programme and IPEN - Dioxin, PCB and Waste Working Group, Prague, Czech Republic
  181. Rebecca Sutton, PhD, Senior Scientist, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond, CA, USA
  182. Michael Switzenbaum, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University, Whitefish Bay, WI, USA
  183. Takumi Takasuga, PhD, Corporate Officer, General Manager, Environment Division, Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto, Japan
  184. Daniel Teclechiel, PhD, Organic Synthesis, AccuStandard, Inc., New Haven, CT, USA
  185. Andrew Tongue, PhD Candidate, Public Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  186. João Paulo Machado Torres, PhD, Professor, Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  187. Fabio Torres, BSc, Student, Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  188. Tomas Trnovec, PhD, Senior Scientist, Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia
  189. Linda Tseng, PhD, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Environmental Studies Program, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, USA
  190. Anthony Tweedale, MSc, Founder, R.I.S.K. Consultancy, Brussels, Belgium
  191. Arjun Venkatesan, PhD, Associate Research Scientist, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  192. Peter Vikesland, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
  193. Urs von Gunten, PhD, Head of Competence Centre for Drinking Water, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  194. Polly Walker, MD, MPH, Retired, Associate Director, Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, Baltimore, MD, USA
  195. Shane Walker, PhD, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA
  196. Kristine Wammer, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN, USA
  197. Michael Warhurst, PhD, MSc, Executive Director, CHEM Trust, London, UK
  198. David Warhurst, BSc, PhD, Emeritus Professor, Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  199. Linda Weavers, PhD, Professor, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
  200. Glenys Webster, PhD, Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) Postdoctoral Fellowship, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Victoria, BC, Canada
  201. Tara Webster, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
  202. Larry Weiss, MD, Chief Medical Officer, AOBiome, LLC, San Francisco, CA, USA
  203. Sacoby Wilson, PhD, Assistant Professor, Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
  204. Manivannan Yegambaram, PhD, Affiliated Faculty Member, Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, AR, USA
  205. Thomas Young, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
  206. Wen Zhang, PhD, Assistant Professor, CEE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA